Selected Cases by Article & Issues

Article Preamble550 Cases
Article 1.117 Cases
Article 1.29 Cases
Article 1.37 Cases
Article 1.41 Cases
Article 1.50 Cases
Article 1.63 Cases
Article 1.769 Cases
Article 1.826 Cases
Article 1.910 Cases
Article 1.103 Cases
Article 1.111 Cases
Article 1.121 Cases
Article 2.1.18 Cases
Article 2.1.25 Cases
Article 2.1.31 Cases
Article 2.1.41 Cases
Article 2.1.50 Cases
Article 2.1.64 Cases
Article 2.1.70 Cases
Article 2.1.80 Cases
Article 2.1.90 Cases
Article 2.1.100 Cases
Article 2.1.116 Cases
Article 2.1.123 Cases
Article 2.1.134 Cases
Article 2.1.144 Cases
Article 2.1.1510 Cases
Article 2.1.162 Cases
Article 2.1.176 Cases
Article 2.1.188 Cases
Article 2.1.195 Cases
Article 2.1.209 Cases
Article 2.1.216 Cases
Article 2.1.221 Cases
Article 2.2.10 Cases
Article 2.2.20 Cases
Article 2.2.30 Cases
Article 2.2.40 Cases
Article 2.2.51 Cases
Article 2.2.60 Cases
Article 2.2.70 Cases
Article 2.2.80 Cases
Article 2.2.90 Cases

(1) An act by an agent that acts without authority or exceeds its authority may be ratified by the principal. On ratification the act produces the same effects as if it had initially been carried out with authority.
(2) The third party may by notice to the principal specify a reasonable period of time for ratification. If the principal does not ratify within that period of time it can no longer do so.
(3) If, at the time of the agent"s act, the third party neither knew nor ought to have have known of the lack of authority, it may, at any time before ratification, by notice to the principal indicate its refusal to become bound by a ratification.

Number Issue # Cases
1 Ratification of false agent’s acts by principal
1.1 No requirements as to form
1.1.1 Ratification by principal´s conduct
2 Time of ratification
2.1 Third party´s right to set reasonable period of time for ratification
3 Partial ratification
4 Revocation of ratification
5 Revocation excluded by third party
5.1 Conditions
Article 2.2.101 Cases
Article 3.1.10 Cases
Article 3.1.22 Cases
Article 3.1.32 Cases
Article 3.1.41 Cases
Article 3.2.12 Cases
Article 3.2.25 Cases
Article 3.2.30 Cases
Article 3.2.40 Cases
Article 3.2.55 Cases
Article 3.2.63 Cases
Article 3.2.710 Cases
Article 3.2.82 Cases
Article 3.2.92 Cases
Article 3.2.100 Cases
Article 3.2.111 Cases
Article 3.2.122 Cases
Article 3.2.131 Cases
Article 3.2.140 Cases
Article 3.2.150 Cases
Article 3.2.160 Cases
Article 3.2.170 Cases
Article 3.3.10 Cases
Article 3.3.22 Cases
Article 4.137 Cases
Article 4.215 Cases
Article 4.334 Cases
Article 4.47 Cases
Article 4.511 Cases
Article 4.617 Cases
Article 4.72 Cases
Article 4.88 Cases
Article 5.1.15 Cases
Article 5.1.212 Cases
Article 5.1.322 Cases
Article 5.1.49 Cases
Article 5.1.50 Cases
Article 5.1.61 Cases
Article 5.1.73 Cases
Article 5.1.84 Cases
Article 5.1.90 Cases
Article 5.2.10 Cases
Article 5.2.20 Cases
Article 5.2.30 Cases
Article 5.2.40 Cases
Article 5.2.50 Cases
Article 5.2.60 Cases
Article 5.3.10 Cases
Article 5.3.20 Cases
Article 5.3.30 Cases
Article 5.3.40 Cases
Article 5.3.50 Cases
Article 6.1.10 Cases
Article 6.1.20 Cases
Article 6.1.30 Cases
Article 6.1.42 Cases
Article 6.1.50 Cases
Article 6.1.62 Cases
Article 6.1.71 Cases
Article 6.1.82 Cases
Article 6.1.95 Cases
Article 6.1.100 Cases
Article 6.1.110 Cases
Article 6.1.122 Cases
Article 6.1.131 Cases
Article 6.1.142 Cases
Article 6.1.153 Cases
Article 6.1.161 Cases
Article 6.1.171 Cases
Article 6.2.110 Cases
Article 6.2.240 Cases
Article 6.2.330 Cases
Article 7.1.110 Cases
Article 7.1.23 Cases
Article 7.1.38 Cases
Article 7.1.43 Cases
Article 7.1.52 Cases
Article 7.1.64 Cases
Article 7.1.730 Cases
Article 7.2.13 Cases
Article 7.2.25 Cases
Article 7.2.30 Cases
Article 7.2.40 Cases
Article 7.2.51 Cases
Article 7.3.128 Cases
Article 7.3.26 Cases
Article 7.3.33 Cases
Article 7.3.41 Cases
Article 7.3.55 Cases
Article 7.3.69 Cases
Article 7.3.75 Cases
Article 7.4.122 Cases
Article 7.4.228 Cases
Article 7.4.333 Cases
Article 7.4.413 Cases
Article 7.4.55 Cases
Article 7.4.64 Cases
Article 7.4.710 Cases
Article 7.4.816 Cases
Article 7.4.941 Cases
Article 7.4.103 Cases
Article 7.4.111 Cases
Article 7.4.122 Cases
Article 7.4.1312 Cases
Article 8.10 Cases
Article 8.20 Cases
Article 8.30 Cases
Article 8.40 Cases
Article 8.50 Cases
Article 9.1.10 Cases
Article 9.1.20 Cases
Article 9.1.30 Cases
Article 9.1.41 Cases
Article 9.1.51 Cases
Article 9.1.60 Cases
Article 9.1.70 Cases
Article 9.1.81 Cases
Article 9.1.91 Cases
Article 9.1.102 Cases
Article 9.1.110 Cases
Article 9.1.121 Cases
Article 9.1.131 Cases
Article 9.1.140 Cases
Article 9.1.150 Cases
Article 9.2.12 Cases
Article 9.2.20 Cases
Article 9.2.31 Cases
Article 9.2.40 Cases
Article 9.2.52 Cases
Article 9.2.60 Cases
Article 9.2.70 Cases
Article 9.2.80 Cases
Article 9.3.10 Cases
Article 9.3.20 Cases
Article 9.3.32 Cases
Article 9.3.42 Cases
Article 9.3.50 Cases
Article 9.3.60 Cases
Article 9.3.70 Cases
Article 10.11 Cases
Article 10.24 Cases
Article 10.30 Cases
Article 10.41 Cases
Article 10.50 Cases
Article 10.61 Cases
Article 10.70 Cases
Article 10.80 Cases
Article 10.92 Cases
Article 10.100 Cases
Article 10.110 Cases
Article 11.1.12 Cases
Article 11.1.20 Cases
Article 11.1.32 Cases
Article 11.1.40 Cases
Article 11.1.50 Cases
Article 11.1.60 Cases
Article 11.1.70 Cases
Article 11.1.80 Cases
Article 11.1.90 Cases
Article 11.1.100 Cases
Article 11.1.110 Cases
Article 11.1.120 Cases
Article 11.1.130 Cases
Article 11.2.11 Cases
Article 11.2.20 Cases
Article 11.2.30 Cases
Article 11.2.40 Cases