Selected Cases by Article & Issues

Article Preamble459 Cases
Article 1.117 Cases
Article 1.26 Cases
Article 1.36 Cases
Article 1.41 Cases
Article 1.50 Cases
Article 1.63 Cases
Article 1.751 Cases
Article 1.814 Cases
Article 1.99 Cases
Article 1.102 Cases
Article 1.110 Cases
Article 1.121 Cases
Article 2.1.17 Cases
Article 2.1.24 Cases
Article 2.1.30 Cases
Article 2.1.41 Cases
Article 2.1.50 Cases
Article 2.1.63 Cases
Article 2.1.70 Cases
Article 2.1.80 Cases
Article 2.1.90 Cases
Article 2.1.100 Cases
Article 2.1.116 Cases
Article 2.1.123 Cases
Article 2.1.134 Cases
Article 2.1.144 Cases
Article 2.1.159 Cases

(1) A party is free to negotiate and is not liable for failure to reach an agreement.
(2) However, a party who negotiates or breaks off negotiations in bad faith is liable for the losses caused to the other party.
(3) It is bad faith, in particular, for a party to enter into or continue negotiations when intending not to reach an agreement with the other party.

Number Issue # Cases
1 Freedom of negotiation (see Art. 1.1) 1
2 Negotiating in bad faith 2
2.1 Entering into or continuing negotiations without any intention to reach agreement 1
2.2 Fraudolent or negligent misrepresentation 1
2.3 Non disclosure of relevant facts
2.4 Breach of confidentiality (see Art. 2.1.16)
2.5 Breaking off negotiations abruptly and without justification 3
3 Liability for negotiating in bad faith
3.1 Liability limited to losses caused to the other party (so-called reliance or negative interest) 2
4 Agreement to negotiate in good faith 3
4.1 All appropriate remedies for non-performance available, including right to performance and other remedies reflecting the expectation or positive interest 3
Article 2.1.162 Cases
Article 2.1.176 Cases
Article 2.1.186 Cases
Article 2.1.194 Cases
Article 2.1.208 Cases
Article 2.1.216 Cases
Article 2.1.221 Cases
Article 2.2.10 Cases
Article 2.2.20 Cases
Article 2.2.30 Cases
Article 2.2.40 Cases
Article 2.2.51 Cases
Article 2.2.60 Cases
Article 2.2.70 Cases
Article 2.2.80 Cases
Article 2.2.90 Cases
Article 2.2.101 Cases
Article 3.1.10 Cases
Article 3.1.21 Cases
Article 3.1.32 Cases
Article 3.1.41 Cases
Article 3.2.12 Cases
Article 3.2.25 Cases
Article 3.2.30 Cases
Article 3.2.40 Cases
Article 3.2.55 Cases
Article 3.2.63 Cases
Article 3.2.77 Cases
Article 3.2.82 Cases
Article 3.2.92 Cases
Article 3.2.100 Cases
Article 3.2.111 Cases
Article 3.2.122 Cases
Article 3.2.130 Cases
Article 3.2.140 Cases
Article 3.2.150 Cases
Article 3.2.160 Cases
Article 3.2.170 Cases
Article 3.3.10 Cases
Article 3.3.22 Cases
Article 4.134 Cases
Article 4.214 Cases
Article 4.330 Cases
Article 4.47 Cases
Article 4.59 Cases
Article 4.616 Cases
Article 4.71 Cases
Article 4.86 Cases
Article 5.1.13 Cases
Article 5.1.29 Cases
Article 5.1.320 Cases
Article 5.1.49 Cases
Article 5.1.50 Cases
Article 5.1.60 Cases
Article 5.1.72 Cases
Article 5.1.83 Cases
Article 5.1.90 Cases
Article 5.2.10 Cases
Article 5.2.20 Cases
Article 5.2.30 Cases
Article 5.2.40 Cases
Article 5.2.50 Cases
Article 5.2.60 Cases
Article 5.3.10 Cases
Article 5.3.20 Cases
Article 5.3.30 Cases
Article 5.3.40 Cases
Article 5.3.50 Cases
Article 6.1.10 Cases
Article 6.1.20 Cases
Article 6.1.30 Cases
Article 6.1.42 Cases
Article 6.1.50 Cases
Article 6.1.62 Cases
Article 6.1.71 Cases
Article 6.1.81 Cases
Article 6.1.94 Cases
Article 6.1.100 Cases
Article 6.1.110 Cases
Article 6.1.121 Cases
Article 6.1.131 Cases
Article 6.1.142 Cases
Article 6.1.153 Cases
Article 6.1.161 Cases
Article 6.1.171 Cases
Article 6.2.110 Cases
Article 6.2.236 Cases
Article 6.2.325 Cases
Article 7.1.17 Cases
Article 7.1.21 Cases
Article 7.1.35 Cases
Article 7.1.43 Cases
Article 7.1.52 Cases
Article 7.1.64 Cases
Article 7.1.728 Cases
Article 7.2.12 Cases
Article 7.2.24 Cases
Article 7.2.30 Cases
Article 7.2.40 Cases
Article 7.2.51 Cases
Article 7.3.125 Cases
Article 7.3.26 Cases
Article 7.3.33 Cases
Article 7.3.40 Cases
Article 7.3.54 Cases
Article 7.3.66 Cases
Article 7.3.74 Cases
Article 7.4.117 Cases
Article 7.4.220 Cases
Article 7.4.328 Cases
Article 7.4.411 Cases
Article 7.4.54 Cases
Article 7.4.63 Cases
Article 7.4.79 Cases
Article 7.4.813 Cases
Article 7.4.935 Cases
Article 7.4.102 Cases
Article 7.4.110 Cases
Article 7.4.121 Cases
Article 7.4.1312 Cases
Article 8.10 Cases
Article 8.20 Cases
Article 8.30 Cases
Article 8.40 Cases
Article 8.50 Cases
Article 9.1.10 Cases
Article 9.1.20 Cases
Article 9.1.30 Cases
Article 9.1.41 Cases
Article 9.1.51 Cases
Article 9.1.60 Cases
Article 9.1.70 Cases
Article 9.1.80 Cases
Article 9.1.90 Cases
Article 9.1.101 Cases
Article 9.1.110 Cases
Article 9.1.120 Cases
Article 9.1.131 Cases
Article 9.1.140 Cases
Article 9.1.150 Cases
Article 9.2.12 Cases
Article 9.2.20 Cases
Article 9.2.31 Cases
Article 9.2.40 Cases
Article 9.2.52 Cases
Article 9.2.60 Cases
Article 9.2.70 Cases
Article 9.2.80 Cases
Article 9.3.10 Cases
Article 9.3.20 Cases
Article 9.3.32 Cases
Article 9.3.42 Cases
Article 9.3.50 Cases
Article 9.3.60 Cases
Article 9.3.70 Cases
Article 10.10 Cases
Article 10.23 Cases
Article 10.30 Cases
Article 10.41 Cases
Article 10.50 Cases
Article 10.61 Cases
Article 10.70 Cases
Article 10.80 Cases
Article 10.92 Cases
Article 10.100 Cases
Article 10.110 Cases
Article 11.1.10 Cases
Article 11.1.20 Cases
Article 11.1.30 Cases
Article 11.1.40 Cases
Article 11.1.50 Cases
Article 11.1.60 Cases
Article 11.1.70 Cases
Article 11.1.80 Cases
Article 11.1.90 Cases
Article 11.1.100 Cases
Article 11.1.110 Cases
Article 11.1.120 Cases
Article 11.1.130 Cases
Article 11.2.10 Cases
Article 11.2.20 Cases
Article 11.2.30 Cases
Article 11.2.40 Cases