Selected Cases by Article & Issues

Article Preamble546 Cases
Article 1.117 Cases
Article 1.29 Cases
Article 1.37 Cases
Article 1.41 Cases
Article 1.50 Cases
Article 1.63 Cases
Article 1.768 Cases
Article 1.825 Cases
Article 1.910 Cases
Article 1.103 Cases
Article 1.111 Cases
Article 1.121 Cases
Article 2.1.18 Cases
Article 2.1.25 Cases
Article 2.1.31 Cases
Article 2.1.41 Cases
Article 2.1.50 Cases
Article 2.1.64 Cases
Article 2.1.70 Cases
Article 2.1.80 Cases
Article 2.1.90 Cases
Article 2.1.100 Cases
Article 2.1.116 Cases
Article 2.1.123 Cases
Article 2.1.134 Cases
Article 2.1.144 Cases
Article 2.1.1510 Cases
Article 2.1.162 Cases
Article 2.1.176 Cases
Article 2.1.188 Cases
Article 2.1.195 Cases
Article 2.1.209 Cases
Article 2.1.216 Cases
Article 2.1.221 Cases
Article 2.2.10 Cases
Article 2.2.20 Cases
Article 2.2.30 Cases
Article 2.2.40 Cases
Article 2.2.51 Cases

(1) Where an agent acts without authority or exceeds its authority, its acts do not affect the legal relations between the principal and the third party.
(2) However, where the principal causes the third party reasonably to believe that the agent has authority to act on behalf of the principal and that the agent is acting within the scope of that authority, the principal may not invoke against the third party the lack of authority of the agent.

Number Issue # Cases
1 Agent acting without or exceeding authority
1.1 Agent´s acts not binding the principal
2 Apparent authority
2.1 Principal may not invoke vis-à-vis third party agent’s lack of authority 1
2.2 Apparent authority of officers of company
Article 2.2.60 Cases
Article 2.2.70 Cases
Article 2.2.80 Cases
Article 2.2.90 Cases
Article 2.2.101 Cases
Article 3.1.10 Cases
Article 3.1.22 Cases
Article 3.1.32 Cases
Article 3.1.41 Cases
Article 3.2.12 Cases
Article 3.2.25 Cases
Article 3.2.30 Cases
Article 3.2.40 Cases
Article 3.2.55 Cases
Article 3.2.63 Cases
Article 3.2.710 Cases
Article 3.2.82 Cases
Article 3.2.92 Cases
Article 3.2.100 Cases
Article 3.2.111 Cases
Article 3.2.122 Cases
Article 3.2.131 Cases
Article 3.2.140 Cases
Article 3.2.150 Cases
Article 3.2.160 Cases
Article 3.2.170 Cases
Article 3.3.10 Cases
Article 3.3.22 Cases
Article 4.137 Cases
Article 4.215 Cases
Article 4.334 Cases
Article 4.47 Cases
Article 4.511 Cases
Article 4.617 Cases
Article 4.72 Cases
Article 4.87 Cases
Article 5.1.15 Cases
Article 5.1.212 Cases
Article 5.1.322 Cases
Article 5.1.49 Cases
Article 5.1.50 Cases
Article 5.1.60 Cases
Article 5.1.73 Cases
Article 5.1.84 Cases
Article 5.1.90 Cases
Article 5.2.10 Cases
Article 5.2.20 Cases
Article 5.2.30 Cases
Article 5.2.40 Cases
Article 5.2.50 Cases
Article 5.2.60 Cases
Article 5.3.10 Cases
Article 5.3.20 Cases
Article 5.3.30 Cases
Article 5.3.40 Cases
Article 5.3.50 Cases
Article 6.1.10 Cases
Article 6.1.20 Cases
Article 6.1.30 Cases
Article 6.1.42 Cases
Article 6.1.50 Cases
Article 6.1.62 Cases
Article 6.1.71 Cases
Article 6.1.82 Cases
Article 6.1.95 Cases
Article 6.1.100 Cases
Article 6.1.110 Cases
Article 6.1.122 Cases
Article 6.1.131 Cases
Article 6.1.142 Cases
Article 6.1.153 Cases
Article 6.1.161 Cases
Article 6.1.171 Cases
Article 6.2.110 Cases
Article 6.2.240 Cases
Article 6.2.330 Cases
Article 7.1.110 Cases
Article 7.1.23 Cases
Article 7.1.38 Cases
Article 7.1.43 Cases
Article 7.1.52 Cases
Article 7.1.64 Cases
Article 7.1.730 Cases
Article 7.2.13 Cases
Article 7.2.25 Cases
Article 7.2.30 Cases
Article 7.2.40 Cases
Article 7.2.51 Cases
Article 7.3.128 Cases
Article 7.3.26 Cases
Article 7.3.33 Cases
Article 7.3.41 Cases
Article 7.3.55 Cases
Article 7.3.69 Cases
Article 7.3.75 Cases
Article 7.4.122 Cases
Article 7.4.228 Cases
Article 7.4.333 Cases
Article 7.4.413 Cases
Article 7.4.55 Cases
Article 7.4.64 Cases
Article 7.4.710 Cases
Article 7.4.816 Cases
Article 7.4.939 Cases
Article 7.4.103 Cases
Article 7.4.111 Cases
Article 7.4.122 Cases
Article 7.4.1312 Cases
Article 8.10 Cases
Article 8.20 Cases
Article 8.30 Cases
Article 8.40 Cases
Article 8.50 Cases
Article 9.1.10 Cases
Article 9.1.20 Cases
Article 9.1.30 Cases
Article 9.1.41 Cases
Article 9.1.51 Cases
Article 9.1.60 Cases
Article 9.1.70 Cases
Article 9.1.81 Cases
Article 9.1.91 Cases
Article 9.1.102 Cases
Article 9.1.110 Cases
Article 9.1.121 Cases
Article 9.1.131 Cases
Article 9.1.140 Cases
Article 9.1.150 Cases
Article 9.2.12 Cases
Article 9.2.20 Cases
Article 9.2.31 Cases
Article 9.2.40 Cases
Article 9.2.52 Cases
Article 9.2.60 Cases
Article 9.2.70 Cases
Article 9.2.80 Cases
Article 9.3.10 Cases
Article 9.3.20 Cases
Article 9.3.32 Cases
Article 9.3.42 Cases
Article 9.3.50 Cases
Article 9.3.60 Cases
Article 9.3.70 Cases
Article 10.11 Cases
Article 10.24 Cases
Article 10.30 Cases
Article 10.41 Cases
Article 10.50 Cases
Article 10.61 Cases
Article 10.70 Cases
Article 10.80 Cases
Article 10.92 Cases
Article 10.100 Cases
Article 10.110 Cases
Article 11.1.12 Cases
Article 11.1.20 Cases
Article 11.1.32 Cases
Article 11.1.40 Cases
Article 11.1.50 Cases
Article 11.1.60 Cases
Article 11.1.70 Cases
Article 11.1.80 Cases
Article 11.1.90 Cases
Article 11.1.100 Cases
Article 11.1.110 Cases
Article 11.1.120 Cases
Article 11.1.130 Cases
Article 11.2.11 Cases
Article 11.2.20 Cases
Article 11.2.30 Cases
Article 11.2.40 Cases