Selected Cases by Article & Issues

Article 1633 Cases
Article 218 Cases
Article 350 Cases
Article 4159 Cases
Article 51 Cases
Article 682 Cases
Article 7216 Cases
Article 896 Cases (1) For the purposes of this Convention statements made by and other conduct of a party are to be interpreted according to his intent where the other party knew or could not have been unaware what that intent was.

(2) If the preceding paragraph is not applicable, statements made by and other conduct of a party are to be interpreted according to the understanding that a reasonable person of the same kind as the other party would have had in the same circumstances.

(3) In determining the intent of a party or the understanding a reasonable person would have had, due consideration is to be given to all relevant circumstances of the case including the negotiations, any practices which the parties have established between themselves, usages and any subsequent conduct of the parties.
Number Issue # Cases
1 Interpretation of statements or other conduct of a party 12
1.1 According to party's own intent where other party knew of such intent 28
1.2 Otherwise, according to understanding of reasonable person of same kind in same circumstances 35
2 Relevant circumstances for purposes of interpretation 18
2.1 Negotiations 14
Country Date Court
Arbitral Award 00-00-2003 ICC International Court of Arbitration
Cases: 1
Argentina 20-10-1989 Juzgado Nacional de Primera Instancia en lo Comercial No. 18
Cases: 1
Austria 08-08-2005 Oberlandesgericht Linz
Austria 23-01-2006 Oberlandesgericht Linz
Cases: 2
Belgium 19-09-1995 Tribunal Commercial de Nivelles
Cases: 1
Germany 11-12-1996 Bundesgerichtshof
Cases: 1
Spain 28-04-2004 Audiencia Provincial de Barcelona
Cases: 1
Switzerland 29-02-2016 Cour d'appel Tribunal Cantonal Vaud
Cases: 1
United Kingdom 17-02-2006 Court of Appeal (Civil Division)
United Kingdom 18-12-2006 Court of Appeal (Civil Division)
United Kingdom 01-07-2009 House of Lords
Cases: 3
USA 28-10-1998 U.S. District Court, N.D., Illinois, Eastern Division
USA 31-03-2017 U.S. District Court, Northern District Illinois
USA 09-05-2018 U.S. Court of Appeals, Second Circuit
Cases: 3
2.2 Practices established between parties 14
2.3 Subsequent conduct of parties 12
2.4 Usages 1
3 Parol evidence rule 11
4 Merger clause 5
Article 953 Cases
Article 109 Cases
Article 1134 Cases
Article 126 Cases
Article 132 Cases
Article 1449 Cases
Article 150 Cases
Article 163 Cases
Article 170 Cases
Article 1881 Cases
Article 1950 Cases
Article 200 Cases
Article 211 Cases
Article 220 Cases
Article 239 Cases
Article 245 Cases
Article 2597 Cases
Article 2622 Cases
Article 279 Cases
Article 283 Cases
Article 2924 Cases
Article 3017 Cases
Article 3156 Cases
Article 323 Cases
Article 3326 Cases
Article 344 Cases
Article 35143 Cases
Article 3628 Cases
Article 370 Cases
Article 3890 Cases
Article 39242 Cases
Article 4032 Cases
Article 412 Cases
Article 426 Cases
Article 432 Cases
Article 449 Cases
Article 4540 Cases
Article 4613 Cases
Article 4724 Cases
Article 489 Cases
Article 49113 Cases
Article 5044 Cases
Article 5116 Cases
Article 525 Cases
Article 5376 Cases
Article 549 Cases
Article 559 Cases
Article 560 Cases
Article 5770 Cases
Article 5820 Cases
Article 5924 Cases
Article 607 Cases
Article 6123 Cases
Article 6224 Cases
Article 6314 Cases
Article 6428 Cases
Article 651 Cases
Article 664 Cases
Article 6717 Cases
Article 680 Cases
Article 696 Cases
Article 701 Cases
Article 7129 Cases
Article 729 Cases
Article 7318 Cases
Article 74151 Cases
Article 7548 Cases
Article 7617 Cases
Article 7744 Cases
Article 78228 Cases
Article 7940 Cases
Article 8014 Cases
Article 8135 Cases
Article 8211 Cases
Article 831 Cases
Article 8429 Cases
Article 855 Cases
Article 867 Cases
Article 874 Cases
Article 8810 Cases
Article 890 Cases
Article 901 Cases
Article 910 Cases
Article 9210 Cases
Article 934 Cases
Article 940 Cases
Article 954 Cases
Article 966 Cases
Article 970 Cases
Article 980 Cases
Article 992 Cases
Article 10022 Cases
Article 1010 Cases
Total Cases in the database 3718