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Article 7990 Bibliography (1) A party is not liable for a failure to perform any of his obligations if he proves that the failure was due to an impediment beyond his control and that he could not reasonably be expected to have taken the impediment into account at the time of the conclusion of the contract or to have avoided or overcome it or its consequences.

(2) If the party"s failure is due to the failure by a third person whom he has engaged to perform the whole or a part of the contract, that party is exempt from liability only if:

(a) he is exempted under the preceding paragraph; and

(b) the person whom he has so engaged would be so exempt if the provisions of that paragraph were applied to him.

(3) The exemption provided by this article has effect for the period during which the impediment exists.

(4) The party who fails to perform must give notice to the other party of the impediment and its effect on his ability to perform. If the notice is not received by the other party within a reasonable time after the party who fails to perform knew or ought to have known of the impediment, he is liable for damages resulting from such non- receipt.

(5) Nothing in this article prevents either party from exercising any right other than to claim damages under this Convention.
Author Title Publisher
A. JANSSEN - C. J. WAHNSCHAFFE COVID-19 and International Sale Contracts: Unprecedented Grounds for Exemption or Business as Usual? Unif. L. Rev., Vol. 25, 2020, p. 466 ff.
ANELLI, I. La forza maggiore nel contratto di vendita internazionale RIVISTA DOTTORI COMMERCIALISTI, 1983, 10
ASAM, H. / KINDLER, P. Ersatz des Zins- und Geldentwertungsschadens nach dem Wiener Kaufrechtsübereinkommen vom 11.4.1980 bei deutsch-italienischen Kaufverträgen RECHT DER INTERNATIONALEN WIRTSCHAFT, 1989, 841-849
ATAMER YESIM M. Availability of Remedies other than Damages in Case of Exemption According to Art. 79 CISG Private Law, National- Global- Comparative. Festschrift für Ingeborg Schwenzer zum 60. Geburstag (Stämpfli Verlag AG Bern, 2011), pp. 83-98.
BACH, I. / STIEBER, C. Die Unmöglichkeit der Leistung im CISG Internationales Handelsrecht, 6 (2006), pp. 59-67
BENEDICK G. Die Informationspflichten im UN-Kaufrecht (CISG) und ihre Verletzung. Munich 2008, Sellier
BOLLÉE, S. The Theory of Risk in the 1980 Vienna Sale of Goods Convention Review of the Convention for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), 1999-2000, 245-290
BONELL, M.J. "Force Majeure" e "Hardship" nel diritto uniforme della vendita internazionale DIRITTO DEL COMMERCIO INTERNAZIONALE, 1990, 543-571
BONELL, M.J. La prima decisione italiana in tema di Convenzione di Vienna sulla vendita internazionale (nota a sent. Tribunale Monza 14 gennaio 1993) GIURISPRUDENZA ITALIANA 1994, I, 145-150
BRAND, R.A. Article 79 and a transactions test analysis of the CISG in: FERRARI, F. - FLECHTNER, H. - BRAND, R.A. (Eds.) - The draft UNICITRAL digest and beyond. Cases, analysis and unresolved issues in the U.N. Sales Convention, München, Sellier, London, Sweet and Maxwell, 2003, 392-407.
BRUNNER C. Force Majeure and Hardship under General Contract Principles. Exemption for Non-Performance in International Arbitration Wolters Kluwer, 2009
BUND, J. M. Force Majeure Clauses: Drafting Advice for the CISG Practitioner 17 Journal of Law and Commerce (1998), 381-413
CAMPINHO M.G. The Exemption from Liability under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sales of Goods (CISG) - Analysis and Brief Comparison with the Brazilian Civil Code in SCHWENZER I./PEREIRA C./TRIPODI L., CISG and Latin America: Regional and Global Perspective, Eleven International Publishing, The Hague, 2016, 149 ff.
CAVASSIN KLAMS C./ FADEL BECUE S.M. The Applicability of Force Majeure and Hardship to CISG Contracts Due to Trade Restrictions and to Other Government Actions in Latin America in SCHWENZER I./PEREIRA C./TRIPODI L., CISG and Latin America: Regional and Global Perspective, Eleven International Publishing, The Hague, 2016, 527 ff.
CAYTAS, I.G., Der unerfüllbare Vertrag. Anfängliche und nachträgliche Leistungshindernisse und Entlastungsgründe: im Recht der CH, D, A, F, I, GB (Wilmington - Zürich), 1984
DE NOVA, G., Risoluzione per eccessiva onerosità e Convenzione di Vienna I CONTRATTI, 1993, 584
DIAMOND, A.L., Force Majeure and Frustration Under the International Sales Contracts McKENDRICK, E. (ed.), FORCE MAJEURE AND FRUSTRATION OF CONTRACTS (LONDON, LLOYD"S OF LONDON PRESS), 1991
DiMatteo, L. Contractual Excuse under the CISG: Impediment, Hardship, and the Excuse Doctrines Pace International Law Review, 2015, 258-305
DRAETTA, U., Force majeure clauses in international trade practice REVUE DE DROIT DES AFFAIRES INTERNATIONALES, 5, 1996, 547-559
FALLON, M. / PHILIPPE, D. La Convention de Vienne sur les contrats de vente internationale de merchandises Journal des Tribunaux 117, 1998, 17-38
FERRARI F. Tribunale di Vigevano: specific aspects of the CISG uniformly dealt with Journal of Law and Commerce, 20 (2001) spring, 225-239
FERRARI, F. Burden of proof under the CISG Review of the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), (2000-2001), 1-10
FERRARI, F., Burden of Proof under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for International Sale of Goods Revue de droit des affaires internationales, 2000, 665-670
FLECHTNER, H. M. The Exemption Provisions of the Sales Convention, including Comments on "Hardship" Doctrine and the 19 June 2009 Decision of the Belgian Cassation Court Belgrade Law Review, Year LIX (2011) no. 3, pp. 84-101
FLECHTNER, H. M., BRAND, R.A., WALTER, M.S. (eds.) Drafting Contracts Under the CISG Oxford University Press, 2007
GUO P., ZHANG S. China’s approach to the principle of change of circumstances under the new Chinese Civil Code: from the CISG model to the PICC model. Journal of contract law (Sydney, Australia), 2021, 86 ff.
GUSTIN M., Le transfert des risques et l"impossibilité d"exécution dans la CVIM Revue de Droit des Affaires Internationales / International Business Law Journal, n. 3/4, 2001, 379-400
HUBER, U., Die Rechtsbehelfe der Parteien, insbesondere der Erfüllungsanspruch, die Vertragsaufhebung und ihre Folgen nach UN-Kaufrecht im Vergleich zu EKG und BGB SCHLECHTRIEM, P. (ed.) EINHEITLICHES KAUFRECHT UND NATIONALES OBLIGATIONENRECHT (FACHTAGUNG FREIBURG I.BR. 16/17.2.1987) (BADEN-BADEN), 1987, 199-223
HUDSON, H., Exemption and Impossibility Under the Vienna Convention FORCE MAJEURE AND FRUSTRATION OF CONTRACTS (LONDON, LLOYD"S OF LONDON PRESS), 1991, 175-194
JANSER, J. Die Haftung des Verkäufers für Vorlieferanten, insbesondere bei mangelhafter Ware, nach CISG, OR und BGB Schulthess, Zürich, 2003, pp. 62 (Veröffentlichungen aus dem Nachdiplomstudium Internationales Wirtschaftsrecht der Universitaet Zürich und dem Europa Institut Zürich, 26)
KARR, T., The New Euro: The Legal Continuity of Contracts Based on the Franc When France Converts to the Euro 12 The Transnational Lawyer, 1999, 203-240
KASTELY, A.H., The Right to Require Performance in International Sales: Towards an International Interpretation of the Vienna Convention 63 WASHINGTON LAW REVIEW 607-651 (1988)
KATO, R. Clausula Rebus Sic Stantibus Under The Vienna Sales Convention on Article 79 of the CISG. Kokusai Shoji Homu (Tokyo), 2009, pp. 5-14.
KEIL, A., Die Haftungsbefreiung des Schuldners im UN-Kaufrecht im Vergleich mit dem deutschen und US-amerikanischen Recht, Europ. Hochschulschriften, Bd 1413 (Frankf., Berlin, Bern, N.Y., Lang), 1993
Kiraz E. - Yıldız Ustun E. COVID-19 and force majeure clauses: an examination of arbitral tribunal’s awards Unif. L. Rev., Vol.25, 2020, 437 ff.
KONARSKI, H. Force majeure and hardship clauses in international contractual practice [in English and French] Revue de droit des affaires internationales / International Business Law Review, 2003, 405-428
KRÜGER U. Modifizierte Erfolgshaftung im UN-Kaufrecht. Die Haftungsbefreiung bei Lieferung vertragswidriger Ware gemäß Art. 79 CISG Lang Verlag, Frankfurt. a. M., [et al.], 1999, pp. 222 (Internationalrechtliche Studien; 9)
LAUTENBACH, B.R., Die Haftungsbefreiung im internationalen Warenkauf nach dem UN-Kaufrecht und dem schweizerischen Kaufrecht (Thése, Zürich), 1990
LEE, W., Exemption of Contract Liability Under the 1980 U.N. Convention 8 DICKINSON JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 375-394 (1990)
LINNE, A. L. Burden of Proof under Art. 35 CISG Pace International Law Review (White Plains, N.Y.), Spring 2008, pp. 31-44.
LOOKOFSKY J., Walking the article 7(2) tightrope between CISG and domestic law in: The Journal of Law and Commerce, Vol. 25, Issue 1, 2005, pp. 87-105
LOOKOFSKY, J.M., The Basis of Liability: A Comparative Analysis of the Fault and No-Fault Theories of Contractual Liability pursuant to the Danish Sale of Goods Act, the UCC and CISG (Kobenhavn), 1981
MAGNUS U., The remedy of avoidance of contract under CISG - general remarks and special cases in: The Journal of Law and Commerce, Vol. 25, Issue 1, 2005, pp. 423-436
MAGNUS, U., Das UN-Kaufrecht: Fragen und Probleme seiner praktischen Bewährung ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR EUROPÄISCHES PRIVATRECHT, 6, 1997, 823-846
MAGNUS, U., Erfahrungen mit dem Haager Waren-Kaufrecht, Erwartungen von der UNCITRAL-Konvention HOYER, H. / POSCH, W. (eds.) DAS EINHEITLICHE WIENER KAUFRECHT (WIEN), 1992, 5-29
MAHASNEH, N.S. Liability Exemption for Failure to Perform under both the 1980 Vienna Convention for International Sale of Goods and Islamic Jurisprudence 24 Arab Law Quarterly (1/2010), pp. 73-103
MAREK, R. H., Continuity for Transatlantic Commercial Contracts after the Introduction of the Euro 66 Fordham Law Review 1998, 1985- 2031
MAZZONI, A., Cause di esonero nella Convenzione di Vienna sulla vendita internazionale di cose mobili e "force majeure" nei contratti internazionali RIVISTA DEL DIRITTO COMMERCIALE E DEL DIRITTO DELLE OBBLIGAZIONI, 1991, I, 539
MERCIER, V., Le point de vue du vendeur: propos d"un praticien (Dossier/Symposium: La Convention de Vienne sur la vente internationale) DROIT ET PRATIQUE DU COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL, 1989, 564-572
MOISAN, P., Technique contractuelle et gestion des risques dans les contrats internationaux: les cas de force majeure et d"imprevision LES CAHIERS DE DROIT, 1994, 281-334
MORSCHER, T., Staatliche Rechtssetzungsakte als Leistungshindernisse im internationalen Warenkauf: Ihre kollisionsrechtliche Behandlung im schweizerischen IPR-Gesetz und im UN-Kaufrecht, (Basel), 1992
NEUMAYER, K.H., Offene Fragen zur Anwendung des Abkommens der Vereinten Nationen über den internationalen Warenkauf RECHT DER INTERNATIONALEN WIRTSCHAFT (RIW), 1994, 99-109
NEWMAN, W.L. / BURROWS, M. Changed Circumstances Under the U.N. Sales Convention in: Newman, W.L. / Burrows, M., The practice of International Litigation. 2nd ed., Juris Publishing Inc., 1998, Part. VI, Chapter 5, VI.39-VI.48
NICHOLAS, B., Force Majeure and Frustration 27 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE LAW 231-245 (1979)
NICHOLAS, B., Impracticability and Impossibility in the U.N. Convention on Contract for the International Sale of Goods GALSTON, N.M. / SMIT, H. (eds.), INTERNATIONAL SALES (CONFERENCE AT PARKER SCHOOL) (NEW YORK, MATTHEW BENDER), 1984, ch. 5
NICHOLAS, B., The Prerequisites and Extent of Liability for Breach of Contract Under the UN-Convention (CISG) SCHLECHTRIEM, P. (ed.), EINHEITLICHES KAUFRECHT UND NAT. OBLIGATIONENRECHT (FACHTAGUNG FREIBURG I.BR 16-17/2/1987) (BADEN-BADEN, NOMOS), 1987, 283-288
PANTALEON, F., Las nuevas bases de la responsabilidad contractual ANUARIO DE DERECHO CIVIL (1993) 1719-1745
PELLEGRINO, M., Subjektive oder objektive Vertragshaftung? ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR EUROPÄISCHES PRIVATRECHT, 1997, 41-57
PLANTARD, J.P., Disposiciones comunes a las obligaciones del vendedor y del comprador (Coloquio Ciudad del México 28/31.7.1981) ANUARIO JURIDICO, 1983, 97-102
RACZYNSKA, M. Recoverability of the Buyer’s Lost Resale Profit under CISG. Nordic Journal of Commercial Law (Turku, Finland) no.2/2007.
RAPSOMANIKIS, M.G., Frustration of Contract in International Trade Law and Comparative Law 18 DUQUESNE LAW REVIEW 551-573 (1980)
RATHJEN, P. Haftungsentlastung des Verkäufers oder Käufers nach Art. 79, 80 CISG RECHT DER INTERNATIONALEN WIRTSCHAFT (RIW), 1999, 561-565
RAWACH, E. La validité des clauses exonératoires de responsabilité et la Convention de Vienne sur la vente internationale de marchandises Revue Internationale de Droit Comparé, 2001 n. 1, pp. 141-157
REMY-CORLAY P., Force majeure, imprévision et faute: la repartition des risques dans la Convention de Vienne in Revue trimestrielle de droit civil, 2005, pp.354-357
RIMKE, J. Force majeure and hardship: Application in International Trade Practice with Specific Regard to the CISG and the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts Review of the Convention for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), 1999-2000, 193-244
RUMMEL, P., Schadensersatz, höhere Gewalt und Fortfall der Geschäftsgrundlage HOYER, H. / POSCH, W. (eds.), DAS EINHEITLICHE WIENER KAUFRECHT, (WIEN), 1992, 177-194
SCHWENZER I. / TEBEL D. Suspicions, mere suspicions: non-conformity of the goods? Uniform Law Review = Revue de droit uniforme, vol. 19 n. 1 (2014), pp. 152-168
SCHWENZER I., MUNOZ E. Duty to Re-negotiate and Contract Adaptation in Case of Hardship Internationales Handelsrecht (IHR), 4/2020, pp. 150-163
SCHWENZER I., MUNOZ E. Duty to Renegotiate and Contract Adaptation in Case of Hardship Uniform Law Review = Revue de droit uniforme, 2019, Vol. 24, 149 ff.
SEVON, L. The New Scandinavian Codification on the Sale of Goods and the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods in: SCHLECHTRIEM, P. (ed.), EINHEITLICHES KAUFRECHT UNDNATIONALES OBLIGATIONENRECHT, (FACHTAGUNG FREIBURGI.BR. 16/17.2.1987) (BADEN-BADEN) 1987, 343-357
SILVA-RUIZ, P. Some Remarks about the 1980 Vienna Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods - Emphasis on Puerto Rico 6 ARIZONA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW 137-146 (1987)
SILVA-RUIZ, P., The UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods: A Note on Exemption from Liability for Failure to Perform CRANSTON, R. / GOODE, R. (eds.), COMMERCIAL AND CONSUMER LAW: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS (OXFORD - CLARENDON PRESS), 1993, 54-59
SILVA-RUIZ, P.F., La exoneración de responsabilidad en la compraventa internacional REVISTA JURIDICA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD INTERAMERICANA DE PUERTO RICO, 1996, 253-286
SLATER S.-D., Overcome by Hardship: the Inapplicability of the UNIDROIT Principles" Hardship Provisions to CISG Florida Journal of International Law, n. 2, 1998, 231-262
STOLL H. / GRUBER G. Arts. 79-80 CISG in: Schlechtriem P. / Schwenzer I. (eds.), Commentary on the UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG), 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford 2005, 806-844
STOLL H. / GRUBER G. Artt. 79-80 CISG in: SCHLECHTRIEM P. / SCHWENZER I. (eds.), Kommentar zum Einheitlichen UN-Kaufrecht, 4th ed., C.H. Beck, München 2004, 747-780
STOLL, H., Inhalt und Grenzen der Schadensersatzpflicht sowie Befreiung von der Haftung im UN-Kaufrecht im Vergleich zu EKG und BGB SCHLECHTRIEM, P. (ed.), EINHEITLICHES KAUFRECHT UND NATIONALES OBLIGATIONENRECHT (FACHTAGUNG FREIBURGI.BR. 16/17.2.1987) (BADEN-BADEN), 1987, 257-281
TALLON D. Arts. 79-84 CISG in: BIANCA C.M. / BONELL M.J. (eds.), Commentary on the International Sales Law, Giuffrè, Milano 1987, 572-612
THOMSON J., The New Chinese Contracts Law and its Relevance for Sino-Australian Investors 16 Journal of Contract Law, 2000, 254-274
Van den HOLE, L., L"exonération de responsabilité dans l"article 79 CISG en comparaison avec le droit allemand, français, belge et la common law Revue de droit com. belge (1998) 356-375
VENEZIANO, A. UNIDROIT Principles and CISG: Change of Circumstances and Duty to Renegotiate according to the Belgian Supreme Court Uniform Law Review/Revue du droit uniforme, 2010, pp.137-149
VILUS, J., Provisions Common to the Obligations of the Seller and the Buyer SARCEVIC, P. / VOLKEN, P. (eds.), INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS, DUBROVNIK LECTURES (NEW YORK, OCEANA), 1986, 239-264
VISCHER, F., Gemeinsame Bestimmungen über Verpflichtungen des Verkäufers und des Käufers (Lausanner Kolloquium 19./20.11.1984) WIENER ÜBEREINKOMMEN VON 1980 ÜBER DEN INTERNATIONALEN WARENKAUF, SCHWEIZERISCHES INSTITUT FÜR RECHTSVERGLEICHUNG (ZÜRICH), 1985, 173-184
WEBER, R.H., Vertragsverletzungsfolgen: Schadensersatz, Rückabwicklung, vertragliche Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten BUCHER, E. (ed.), WIENER KAUFRECHT, BERNER TAGE FÜR DIE JURISTISCHE PRAXIS 1990 (BERN), 1991, 165-210
WEITZMANN, T., Validity and excuse in the U.N. Sales Convention The Journal of Law and Commerce, Spring 1997, 265-290
WINSHIP, P. Exemptions under article 79 of the Vienna sales convention Rabels Zeitschrift für ausländisches und internationales Privatrecht, 68 (2004), 495-510
Witz C., Köhler B. Le Covid-19 et les ventes internationales régies par la Convention de Vienne. Recueil Dalloz (Paris) 198:15:754-763, 2022. Recueil Dalloz (Paris), 2022, 754 ff.
ZELLER, B. Article 79 Revisited 14 Vindobona Journal of International Commercial Law and Arbitration (2010/2):151-164
ZUPPI, L., A Comparison of Buyer"s Remedies under the CISG with the Latin American Tradition Pace International Law Review (ed.), Review of the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Kluwer Law International (The Hague / London / Boston) 1
Article 809 Bibliography
Article 8113 Bibliography
Article 8215 Bibliography
Article 839 Bibliography
Article 8416 Bibliography
Article 8512 Bibliography
Article 8613 Bibliography
Article 8710 Bibliography
Article 8810 Bibliography
Article 895 Bibliography
Article 908 Bibliography
Article 916 Bibliography
Article 9219 Bibliography
Article 9312 Bibliography
Article 9414 Bibliography
Article 9526 Bibliography
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Article 976 Bibliography
Article 986 Bibliography
Article 997 Bibliography
Article 10012 Bibliography
Article 101174 Bibliography
Total Bibliography in the database 3000