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Article 1837 Bibliography (1) A statement made by or other conduct of the offeree indicating assent to an offer is an acceptance. Silence or inactivity does not in itself amount to acceptance.

(2) An acceptance of an offer becomes effective at the moment the indication of assent reaches the offeror. An acceptance is not effective if the indication of assent does not reach the offeror within the time he has fixed or, if no time is fixed, within a reasonable time, due account being taken of the circumstances of the transaction, including the rapidity of the means of communication employed by the offeror. An oral offer must be accepted immediately unless the circumstances indicate otherwise.

(3) However, if, by virtue of the offer or as a result of practices which the parties have established between themselves or of usage, the offeree may indicate assent by performing an act, such as one relating to the dispatch of the goods or payment of the price, without notice to the offeror, the acceptance is effective at the moment the act is performed, providing that the act is performed within the period of time laid down in the preceding paragraph.
Author Title Publisher
BONELL, M.J. / LIGUORI, F. The U.N. Convention on the International Sale of Goods: a Critical Analysis of Current International Case Law UNIFORM LAW REVIEW / REVUE DE DROIT UNIFORME (1996) 147-163, 359-375
BONELL, M.J. / LIGUORI, F. The U.N. Convention on the International Sale of Goods: a Critical Analysis of Current International Case Law - 1997 UNIFORM LAW REVIEW / REVUE DE DROIT UNIFORME, 1997, 583-597 (Part II)
BUTLER B./MUELLER B. Acceptance of an Offer under the CISG In SCHWENZER I./PEREIRA C./TRIPODI L., CISG and Latin America: Regional and Global Perspective, Eleven International Publishing, The Hague, 2016, 299 ff.
BYDLINSKI, F. Das allgemeine Vertragsrecht (Symposium Bade-Wien 17/19.4.1983) DORALT, P.(ed.), DAS UNCITRAL-KAUFRECHT IM VERGLEICH ZUM ÖSTERREICHISCHEN RECHT (WIEN, MANZ) 1985, 57-90
BYDLINSKI, F. Der Vertragsschluß nach der Wiener UN-Kaufrechtskonvention in komparativer Betrachtung ARCHIVIUM IURIDICUM CRACOVIENSE (BRESLAU), 1985, XVIII, 143-156
COOK, V.S., CISG: Form the Perspective of the Practitioner (Symposium-Ten Years of the United Nations Sales Convention) 17 Jounal of Law and Commerce (1998), 343-353
DILGER, K., Das Zustandekommen von Kaufverträgen im Aussenhandel nach internationalem Einheitsrecht und nationalem Sonderrecht RABELS ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR AUSLÄNDISCHES UND INTERNATIONALES PRIVATRECHT (RABELSZ), 1981, 169-195
ESSER, M., Commercial Letters of Confirmation in International Trade: Austrian, French, German and Swiss law and Uniform Law under the 1980 Sales Convention 18 GEORGIA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW 427-460 (1988)
ESSER, M.J., Die letzte Glocke zum Geleit? Kaufmännische Bestätigungschreiben im Int. Handel: D,F,A und CH Recht und Einheitliches Recht unter der Kaufrechtskonvention von 1980 ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR RECHTSVERGLEICHUNG, 1988, 167-193
FARNSWORTH E.A. Arts. 18-24 CISG in: BIANCA C.M. / BONELL M.J. (eds.), Commentary on the International Sales Law, Giuffrè, Milano 1987, 163-204
FARNSWORTH E.A. Formation of Contract in: GALSTON N.M. / SMIT H. (eds.), INTERNATIONAL SALES (CONFERENCE AT PARKER SCHOOL) (NEW YORK, MATTHEW BENDER), 1984, ch. 3
HERBER, R., Möglichkeiten der Vertragsgestaltung nach dem UN- Kaufübereinkommen BUCHER, E. (ed.), WIENER KAUFRECHT, BERNER TAGE FÜR DIE JURISTISCHE PRAXIS 1990 (BERN), 1991, 215-237
JAMETTI GREINER, M., Der Vertragsabschluß - Zeitpunkt, Formvorschriften, rechtsgeschäftliche Erklärungen HOYER, H. / POSCH, W. (eds.), DAS EINHEITLICHE WIENER KAUFRECHT (WIEN), 1992, 43-57
KENJI NAKATA, G., Filanto S.p.A. v. Chilewich Int"l Corp.: Sounds of Silence Bellow Forth Under the CISG"s International Battle of the Forms 7 THE TRANSNATIONAL LAWYER 141-163 (1994)
KRAMER, E.A. Konsensprobleme im Rahmen des UN-Kaufrechts Festschrift Rudolf Welser zum 65. Geburtstag, Wien 2004 Manzsche Verlags-und Universitàtsbuchhandlung, 539-558
LEVY, D.A., Contract Formation Under the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts, UCC, Restatement and CISG 30 UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE LAW JOURNAL, 3, 249-300 (1998)
LIGUORI, F., La Convenzione di Vienna sulla vendita internazionale di beni mobili nella pratica: un"analisi critica delle prime cento decisioni FORO ITALIANO (1996), V, 145-184
MAGNUS, U., Erfahrungen mit dem Haager Waren-Kaufrecht, Erwartungen von der UNCITRAL-Konvention HOYER, H. / POSCH, W. (eds.) DAS EINHEITLICHE WIENER KAUFRECHT (WIEN), 1992, 5-29
MEHREN VON, A.T. / RIVKIN, D.W., Contracts for the International Sale of Minerals 2 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION 49-67 (1985)
MOULY, C., La conclusion du contrat selon la Convention de Vienne sur la vente internationale de marchandises (Dossier/Symposium: La Convention de Vienne sur la vente internationale) DROIT ET PRATIQUE DU COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL, 1989, 400-421
MOULY, C., La formation du contrat (Colloque Paris 1/2.12.1989) DERAIN Y. / GHESTIN, J. (eds.), LA CONVENTION DE VIENNE SUR LA VENTE INTERNATIONALE ET LES INCOTERMS, (PARIS) 1990, 55-82
MURRAY, J.E. jr., An Essay on the Formation of Contracts and Related Matters under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (Symposium Pittsburgh 23.10.1987) 8 JOURNAL OF LAW AND COMMERCE 11-51 (1988)
PATTI, S., Silenzio, inerzia e comportamento concludente nella Convenzione di Vienna sui contratti di vendita internazionale di beni mobili RIVISTA DEL DIRITTO COMMERCIALE E DEL DIRITTO GENERALE DELLE OBBLIGAZIONI, 1991, I, 135
PERALES VISCASILLAS, M.d.P., La perfección por silencio de la Compraventa Internacional en la Convención de Viena de 1980 DERECHO DE LOS NEGOCIOS, (1995), 9-14
RANKER, C., UN-Kaufrecht: Identität des Vertragspartners und Beweiskraft privatschriftlicher Urkunden PRAXIS DES INTERNATIONALEN PRIVAT- UND VERFAHRENSRECHTS (IPRax), 1995, 236-238
REHBINDER, E., Vertragsschluß nach UN-Kaufrecht im Vergleich zu EAG und BGB SCHLECHTRIEM, P. (ed.), EINHEITLICHES KAUFRECHT UNDNATIONALES OBLIGATIONENRECHT (FACHTAGUNG FREIBURGI.BR. 16/17.2.1987) (BADEN-BADEN), 1987, 149-170
SCHLECHTRIEM P. Arts. 14-24 CISG in: SCHLECHTRIEM P. / SCHWENZER I. (eds.), Commentary on UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG), 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford 2005, 176-280
SCHLECHTRIEM P. Artt. 14-24 CISG in: SCHLECHTRIEM P. / SCHWENZER I. (eds.), Kommentar zum Einheitlichen UN-Kaufrecht, 4th ed., C.H. Beck, München 2004, 217-306
SCHWENZER I./ MOHS F., Old Habits Die Hard: Traditional Contract Formation in a Modern World in Internationals Handelsrecht 6/2006, pp. 239 - 246
SHISHKEVISH, H.L., The Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods and the General Conditions for the Sale of Goods (Student Note) 12 GEORGIA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW 451-458 (1982)
SONO, K., Formation of International Contracts under the Vienna Convention: A Shift Above the Comparative Law SARCEVIC, P. / VOLKEN, P. (eds.), INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS, DUBROVNIK LECTURES (NEW YORK - OCEANA), 1986, 111-131
SONO, K., Restoration of the Rule of Reason in Contract Formation: Has There Been Civil and Common Disparity? (Cornell Symposium 1988) 21 CORNELL INTERNATIONAL LAW JOURNAL 477-486 (1988)
STOFFEL, W.A., Formation du contrat (Lausanner Kolloquium 19./20.11.1984) WIENER ÜBEREINKOMMEN VON 1980 ÜBER DEN INTERNATIONALEN WARENKAUF, SCHWEIZERISCHES INSTITUT FÜR RECHTSVERGLEICHUNG (ZÜRICH), 1985, 55-76
THOMAS, B., Le point de vue de l"acheteur: propos d"un praticien (Dossier/Symposium: La Convention de Vienne sur la vente internationale) DROIT ET PRATIQUE DU COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL, 1989, 573-780
VIDA, A., Unwirksamkeit der Offerte wegen Unbestimmtheit nach UN-Kaufrecht PRAXIS DES INTERNATIONALEN PRIVAT- UND VERFAHRENSRECHTS (IPRax), 1995, 261-264
WINSHIP P. Articles 14-24 CISG in: Ferrari F. / Flechtner H. / Brand R. (eds.), The Draft UNCITRAL Digest and Beyond: Cases, Analysis and Unresolved Issues in the U.N. Sales Convention, München (Sellier, European Law Publishers GmbH) / London (Sweet & Maxwell), 2004, 580-599
WINSHIP, P., Formation of International Sales Contracts under the 1980 Vienna Convention 17 THE INTERNATIONAL LAWYER 1-18 (1983)
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