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Article 1977 Bibliography (1) A reply to an offer which purports to be an acceptance but contains additions, limitations or other modifications is a rejection of the offer and constitutes a counter-offer.

(2) However, a reply to an offer which purports to be an acceptance but contains additional or different terms which do not materially alter the terms of the offer constitutes an acceptance, unless the offeror, without undue delay, objects orally to the discrepancy or dispatches a notice to that effect. If he does not so object, the terms of the contract are the terms of the offer with the modifications contained in the acceptance.

(3) Additional or different terms relating, among other things, to the price, payment, quality and quantity of the goods, place and time of delivery, extent of one party"s liability to other or the settlement of disputes are considered to alter the terms of the offer materially.
Author Title Publisher
BLODGETT, P.C. The U.N. Convention on the Sale of Goods and the "Battle of the Forms" 18 THE COLORADO LAWYER 421-427 (1989)
BONELL, M.J. / LIGUORI, F. The U.N. Convention on the International Sale of Goods: a Critical Analysis of Current International Case Law UNIFORM LAW REVIEW / REVUE DE DROIT UNIFORME (1996) 147-163, 359-375
BONELL, M.J. / LIGUORI, F. The U.N. Convention on the International Sale of Goods: a Critical Analysis of Current International Case Law - 1997 UNIFORM LAW REVIEW / REVUE DE DROIT UNIFORME, 1997, 583-597 (Part II)
BORTOLOTTI, F. Formazione del contratto - battle of forms Contratto e impresa/Europa, n.2/2012 (Cedam, Milano), pp. 891-912.
BYDLINSKI, F. Das allgemeine Vertragsrecht (Symposium Bade-Wien 17/19.4.1983) DORALT, P.(ed.), DAS UNCITRAL-KAUFRECHT IM VERGLEICH ZUM ÖSTERREICHISCHEN RECHT (WIEN, MANZ) 1985, 57-90
BYDLINSKI, F. Der Vertragsschluß nach der Wiener UN-Kaufrechtskonvention in komparativer Betrachtung ARCHIVIUM IURIDICUM CRACOVIENSE (BRESLAU), 1985, XVIII, 143-156
CISG-A.C. CISG-A.C. Opinion no. 13, Inclusion of Standard Terms under the CISG Available at the CISG A.C. website, http://www.cisgac.com/cisgac-opinion-no13/
COOK, V.S., CISG: Form the Perspective of the Practitioner (Symposium-Ten Years of the United Nations Sales Convention) 17 Jounal of Law and Commerce (1998), 343-353
DIEZ-PICAZO, L., Condiciones Generales de la Contratación y Cláusulas Abusivas En Encuentros sobre Derecho Iberoamericano. Derecho Privado FUNDACION BBV, 1995, 1-24
DILGER, K., Das Zustandekommen von Kaufverträgen im Aussenhandel nach internationalem Einheitsrecht und nationalem Sonderrecht RABELS ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR AUSLÄNDISCHES UND INTERNATIONALES PRIVATRECHT (RABELSZ), 1981, 169-195
DROBNIG, U., Standard Forms and General Conditions in International Trade: Dutch, German and Uniform Law VOLSKUIL, C.C.A. / WADE, J.A. (eds.), HAGUE-ZAGREB ESSAYS ON THE LAW OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE (THE HAGUE), 1983, 117-134
DURANY PICH, S., Sobre la necesidad de que la aceptación coincida en todo con la oferta: el espejo roto ANUARIO DE DERECHO CIVIL, 1992, 1011-1096
ESSER, M., Commercial Letters of Confirmation in International Trade: Austrian, French, German and Swiss law and Uniform Law under the 1980 Sales Convention 18 GEORGIA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW 427-460 (1988)
ESSER, M.J., Die letzte Glocke zum Geleit? Kaufmännische Bestätigungschreiben im Int. Handel: D,F,A und CH Recht und Einheitliches Recht unter der Kaufrechtskonvention von 1980 ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR RECHTSVERGLEICHUNG, 1988, 167-193
FARNSWORTH E.A. Arts. 18-24 CISG in: BIANCA C.M. / BONELL M.J. (eds.), Commentary on the International Sales Law, Giuffrè, Milano 1987, 163-204
FARNSWORTH E.A. Formation of Contract in: GALSTON N.M. / SMIT H. (eds.), INTERNATIONAL SALES (CONFERENCE AT PARKER SCHOOL) (NEW YORK, MATTHEW BENDER), 1984, ch. 3
FARNSWORTH, E.A., Review of Standard Forms or Terms Under the Vienna Convention (Cornell Symposium) 21 CORNELL INTERNATIONAL LAW JOURNAL 439-447 (1988)
FEJÕS, A. Battle of the Forms under the CISG 11 Vindobona Journal of International Commercial Law and Arbitration (2007/1), pp. 113-129
FERRANTE E. Homeward trend o interpretazioni autonome? Un bilancio della giurisprudenza italiana sulla Convenzione di Vienna Contratto e impresa/Europa, n.1/2016, 23 ff.
FERRANTE, E. "Battle of forms" and the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). A note on the BGH (German Supreme Court) decision of 9 January 2002 in: Uniform Law Review / Revue de droit uniforme, 8 (2003), 975 - 981
FERRANTE, E. La battle of forms nella Convenzione di Vienna: una recente decisione del Tribunale federale tedesco Contratto e Impresa/Europa, 8 (2003), 485-511.
FLECHTNER, H. M., BRAND, R.A., WALTER, M.S. (eds.) Drafting Contracts Under the CISG Oxford University Press, 2007
FRIGO, M., L"efficacia delle condizioni generali di contratto alla luce delle Convenzioni di Roma e di Vienna del 1980 DIRITTO DEL COMMERCIO INTERNAZIONALE, 1993, 521-537
GABRIEL, H.D., The Battle of the Forms. A Comparison of the UN Convention for the International Sale of Goods and the UCC: The Common Law and the UCC 49 THE BUSINESS LAWYER 1053-64 (1994)
HAMMERSCHMIDT, J. Kollision Allgemeiner Geschäftsbedingungen im Geltungsbereichs des UN-Kaufrechts Göttingen, Cuvillier, 2004, pp. 140
HANKAMPER W., Acceptance of an offer in light of eletronic communications in: The Journal of Law and Commerce, Vol. 25, Issue 1, 2005, pp. 147-151
HAVER P.M., Adapting European Sales Conditions for Sales into the United States in Business Law International, vol. 8/1, 2007, pp. 38-90
HELLNER, J., The Vienna Convention and Standard Form Contracts SARCEVIC, P. / VOLKEN, P. (eds.), INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS, DUBROVNIK LECTURES (NEW YORK, OCEANA), 1986, 335-363
HENNEMANN, M.S. AGB-Kontrolle im UN-Kaufrecht aus deutscher und französischer Sicht Universität Tübingen, Dissertation, 2001, S. 181
HERBER, R., Möglichkeiten der Vertragsgestaltung nach dem UN- Kaufübereinkommen BUCHER, E. (ed.), WIENER KAUFRECHT, BERNER TAGE FÜR DIE JURISTISCHE PRAXIS 1990 (BERN), 1991, 215-237
JAMETTI GREINER, M., Der Vertragsabschluß - Zeitpunkt, Formvorschriften, rechtsgeschäftliche Erklärungen HOYER, H. / POSCH, W. (eds.), DAS EINHEITLICHE WIENER KAUFRECHT (WIEN), 1992, 43-57
JANSSEN, A. Kollidierende Allgemeine Geschäftsbedingungen im internationalen Kaufrecht (CISG) Wirtschaftsrechtliche Blätter, 16 (2002), 453-457.
JANSSEN, A. U. De “battle of forms” in het Weens Koopverdrag. Het probleem van tegenstrijdige algemene voorwarden in het internationale kooprecht Weekblad voor Privaatrecht, Notariaat en Registratie, Vol. 133 (2002) no. 6488 , 355-358
KENJI NAKATA, G., Filanto S.p.A. v. Chilewich Int"l Corp.: Sounds of Silence Bellow Forth Under the CISG"s International Battle of the Forms 7 THE TRANSNATIONAL LAWYER 141-163 (1994)
KLOTZ, J. M., MAZZACANO, P.J., PRIBETIC, A.I. All Quiet on The CISG Front: Guiliani v. Invar Manufacturing, The Battle of the Forms, and the Elusive Concept of Terminus Fixus. Canadian Business Law Journal (Aurora, Ont.), 2008, pp. 430-442.
KRAMER, E.A. Konsensprobleme im Rahmen des UN-Kaufrechts Festschrift Rudolf Welser zum 65. Geburtstag, Wien 2004 Manzsche Verlags-und Universitàtsbuchhandlung, 539-558
LEVY, D.A., Contract Formation Under the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts, UCC, Restatement and CISG 30 UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE LAW JOURNAL, 3, 249-300 (1998)
LIGUORI, F., Il diritto uniforme della vendita internazionale: prassi e tendenze applicative della Convenzione di Vienna del 1980 RIVISTA DI DIRITTO CIVILE (1999), 143-177
LIGUORI, F., La Convenzione di Vienna sulla vendita internazionale di beni mobili nella pratica: un"analisi critica delle prime cento decisioni FORO ITALIANO (1996), V, 145-184
MAGNUS, U. Aktuelle Fragen des UN-Kaufrechts ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR EUROPÄISCHES PRIVATRECHT (ZEuP), 1993, 79-99
MAGNUS, U., Erfahrungen mit dem Haager Waren-Kaufrecht, Erwartungen von der UNCITRAL-Konvention HOYER, H. / POSCH, W. (eds.) DAS EINHEITLICHE WIENER KAUFRECHT (WIEN), 1992, 5-29
MEHREN VON, A.T. / RIVKIN, D.W., Contracts for the International Sale of Minerals 2 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION 49-67 (1985)
MEHREN VON, A.T., The Battle of Forms: A Comparative View 38 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE LAW 265-298 (1990)
MOCCIA, C., The U.N. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods and the "Battle of Forms" (Student Note) 13 FORDHAM INTERNATIONAL LAW JOURNAL 649-679 (1989-90)
MOULY, C., La conclusion du contrat selon la Convention de Vienne sur la vente internationale de marchandises (Dossier/Symposium: La Convention de Vienne sur la vente internationale) DROIT ET PRATIQUE DU COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL, 1989, 400-421
MOULY, C., La formation du contrat (Colloque Paris 1/2.12.1989) DERAIN Y. / GHESTIN, J. (eds.), LA CONVENTION DE VIENNE SUR LA VENTE INTERNATIONALE ET LES INCOTERMS, (PARIS) 1990, 55-82
MURRAY, J.E. The definitive "battle of forms": chaos revisited 20 Journal of Law and Commerce (2000), 1-48
MURRAY, J.E. jr., An Essay on the Formation of Contracts and Related Matters under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (Symposium Pittsburgh 23.10.1987) 8 JOURNAL OF LAW AND COMMERCE 11-51 (1988)
NEUMAYER, K.H., Das Wiener Kaufrechtsübereinkommen und die sogenannte "Battle of Forms" FREIHET / ZWANH (eds.), MELANGES HAHS GIGGER (BERN), 1989, 501-526
NEUMAYER, K.H., Offene Fragen zur Anwendung des Abkommens der Vereinten Nationen über den internationalen Warenkauf RECHT DER INTERNATIONALEN WIRTSCHAFT (RIW), 1994, 99-109
NG"ONG"OLA, C., The Vienna Sales Convention of 1980 in the Southern African Legal Environment: Formation of a Contract of Sale 4 AFRICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW / REVUE AFRICAINE DE DROIT INTERNATIONAL ET COMPARÉ, 1992, 834-853
PERALES VISCASILLAS, M.d.P., La batalla de los formularios en la Conv. de Viena de 1980 sobre compraventa intern. de mercaderías: Una comparación con la sección 2-207 UCC y los principios de UNIDROIT LA LEY, 1996, 1-12
PERALES VISCASILLAS, M.d.P., La perfección por silencio de la Compraventa Internacional en la Convención de Viena de 1980 DERECHO DE LOS NEGOCIOS, (1995), 9-14
PERALES VISCASILLAS. M.d.P. "Battle of the Forms" Under the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods: A Comparison with Section 2-207 UCC and the UNIDROIT Principles 10 Pace International Law Review (1998) 97-155
REHBINDER, E., Vertragsschluß nach UN-Kaufrecht im Vergleich zu EAG und BGB SCHLECHTRIEM, P. (ed.), EINHEITLICHES KAUFRECHT UNDNATIONALES OBLIGATIONENRECHT (FACHTAGUNG FREIBURGI.BR. 16/17.2.1987) (BADEN-BADEN), 1987, 149-170
RÜHL, G. The battle of forms: comparative and economic observations University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Economic Law, 24 (2003), 189 ss
SAMBUGARO, G. Incorporation of Standard Contract Terms and the "Battle of Forms" under the Vienna Sales Convention (CISG). International Business Law Journal, No. 1 (2009), pp. 69-79
SCHILF, S. Writing in Confirmation: Valid Evidence of a Sales Contract? Reflections on a Danish Case Regarding Usages, CISG and Unidroit Principles Uniform Law Review / Revue de droit uniforme (1999), no. 4, 1004-1009
SCHLECHTRIEM P. Arts. 14-24 CISG in: SCHLECHTRIEM P. / SCHWENZER I. (eds.), Commentary on UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG), 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford 2005, 176-280
SCHLECHTRIEM P. Artt. 14-24 CISG in: SCHLECHTRIEM P. / SCHWENZER I. (eds.), Kommentar zum Einheitlichen UN-Kaufrecht, 4th ed., C.H. Beck, München 2004, 217-306
SCHWENZER I./ MOHS F., Old Habits Die Hard: Traditional Contract Formation in a Modern World in Internationals Handelsrecht 6/2006, pp. 239 - 246
SHISHKEVISH, H.L., The Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods and the General Conditions for the Sale of Goods (Student Note) 12 GEORGIA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW 451-458 (1982)
SIEG, O., Allgemeine Geschäftsbedingungen im grenzüberschreitendenGeschäftsverkehr RECHT DER INTERNATIONALEN WIRTSCHAFT/AUßENWIRTSCHAFTSDIENSTDES BETRIEBS-BERATERS, 10, 1997, 811-819.
SONO, K., Formation of International Contracts under the Vienna Convention: A Shift Above the Comparative Law SARCEVIC, P. / VOLKEN, P. (eds.), INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS, DUBROVNIK LECTURES (NEW YORK - OCEANA), 1986, 111-131
STAHL, H., Standard Business Conditions in Germany under the Vienna Convention 15 COMPARATIVE LAW YEARBOOK OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS 381-389 (1993)
STEENSGAARD, K. Battle of the Forms Under the CISG: One or More Solutions? Internationales Handelsrecht, 2015, 89-94
STOFFEL, W.A., Formation du contrat (Lausanner Kolloquium 19./20.11.1984) WIENER ÜBEREINKOMMEN VON 1980 ÜBER DEN INTERNATIONALEN WARENKAUF, SCHWEIZERISCHES INSTITUT FÜR RECHTSVERGLEICHUNG (ZÜRICH), 1985, 55-76
SUKURS, C. Harmonizing the battle of forms: A Comparison of the United States, Canada, and the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 34 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 2001, 1481-1515
THIEFFRY, J., Les nouvelles règles de la vente internationale (Dossier/Symposium: la Convention de Vienne sur la vente internationale) DROIT ET PRATIQUE DU COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL, 1989, 369-384
THOMAS, B., Le point de vue de l"acheteur: propos d"un praticien (Dossier/Symposium: La Convention de Vienne sur la vente internationale) DROIT ET PRATIQUE DU COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL, 1989, 573-780
VELDEN van der, F.J.A., Uniform International Sales Law and the Battle of Forms LIBER AMICORUM JEAN GEORGES SAUVEPLANNE (DEVENTER, KLUWER), 1984, 233-249
VENTSCH, V. - KLUTH, P. Die Einbeziehung von Allgemeinen Geschäftsbedingungen im Rahmen des UN-Kaufrechts IHR. Internationales Handelsrecht, 3 (2003), 61-66
VERGNE, F., The "Battle of Forms" under the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 33 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE LAW 233-258 (1985)
WILDNER K. Art. 19 CISG: The German Approach to the Battle of the Forms in International Contract Law: The Decision of the Federal Supreme Court of Germany of 9 January 2002 in 20 Pace International Law Review (Spring 2008), 1-18
WILL, M.R., Conflits entre conditions générales de vente COLLOQUE AIX-EN-PROVENCE (7/8.3.1980), LES VENTES INTERNATIONALES DE MARCHANDISES (PARIS, ECONOMICA), 1981, 99-109
WINSHIP P. Articles 14-24 CISG in: Ferrari F. / Flechtner H. / Brand R. (eds.), The Draft UNCITRAL Digest and Beyond: Cases, Analysis and Unresolved Issues in the U.N. Sales Convention, München (Sellier, European Law Publishers GmbH) / London (Sweet & Maxwell), 2004, 580-599
WINSHIP, P., Formation of International Sales Contracts under the 1980 Vienna Convention 17 THE INTERNATIONAL LAWYER 1-18 (1983)
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