Selected Cases by Article & Issues

Article 1571 Cases
Article 218 Cases
Article 350 Cases
Article 4150 Cases
Article 51 Cases
Article 679 Cases
Article 7202 Cases
Article 893 Cases (1) For the purposes of this Convention statements made by and other conduct of a party are to be interpreted according to his intent where the other party knew or could not have been unaware what that intent was.

(2) If the preceding paragraph is not applicable, statements made by and other conduct of a party are to be interpreted according to the understanding that a reasonable person of the same kind as the other party would have had in the same circumstances.

(3) In determining the intent of a party or the understanding a reasonable person would have had, due consideration is to be given to all relevant circumstances of the case including the negotiations, any practices which the parties have established between themselves, usages and any subsequent conduct of the parties.
Number Issue # Cases
1 Interpretation of statements or other conduct of a party 12
1.1 According to party's own intent where other party knew of such intent 27
Country Date Court
Arbitral Award 00-00-1994 ICC Court of Arbitration - Paris
Arbitral Award 00-00-1995 ICC Court of Arbitration - Paris
Cases: 2
Austria 11-03-1999 Oberster Gerichtshof
Austria 07-03-2002 Oberlandesgericht Graz
Austria 31-08-2005 Oberster Gerichtshof
Austria 23-01-2006 Oberlandesgericht Linz
Cases: 4
France 22-02-1995 Cour d'Appel de Grenoble, Chambre Commerciale
France 13-09-1995 Cour d'Appel de Grenoble, Chambre Commerciale
France 21-10-1999 Cour d'Appel de Grenoble
Cases: 3
Germany 26-09-1990 Landgericht Hamburg
Germany 11-12-1996 Bundesgerichtshof
Germany 27-11-2007 Bundesgerichtshof
Germany 14-01-2009 Oberlandesgericht M√ľnchen
Cases: 4
Mexico 10-03-2005 Primer Tribunal Colegiado en Materia Civil del Primer Circuito
Cases: 1
Netherlands 07-11-1997 Hoge Raad
Netherlands 02-01-2007 Gerechtshof's-Hertogenbosch
Cases: 2
New Zealand 27-11-2000 Court of Appeal
Cases: 1
Poland 28-11-2013 Supreme Court of Poland
Cases: 1
Russian Federation 21-02-1997 Tribunal of Int'l Commercial Arbitration at the Russian Federation Chamber of Commerce
Russian Federation 13-02-2006 Tribunal of Int'l Commercial Arbitration at the Russian Federation Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Cases: 2
Switzerland 05-04-2005 Schweizerisches Bundesgericht
Cases: 1
USA 29-06-1998 U.S. Court of Appeals, 11th Circuit
USA 28-10-1998 U.S. District Court, N.D., Illinois, Eastern Division
USA 30-01-2001 U.S. District Court, N.D., California
USA 17-12-2001 U.S. District Court, S.D., Michigan
USA 28-09-2007 U.S. District Court, District of Kansas
USA 25-01-2022 Supreme Court of the State of New York, Albany County
Cases: 6
1.2 Otherwise, according to understanding of reasonable person of same kind in same circumstances 34
2 Relevant circumstances for purposes of interpretation 17
2.1 Negotiations 13
2.2 Practices established between parties 13
2.3 Subsequent conduct of parties 11
2.4 Usages 0
3 Parol evidence rule 11
4 Merger clause 5
Article 952 Cases
Article 109 Cases
Article 1133 Cases
Article 126 Cases
Article 132 Cases
Article 1444 Cases
Article 150 Cases
Article 163 Cases
Article 170 Cases
Article 1871 Cases
Article 1947 Cases
Article 200 Cases
Article 211 Cases
Article 220 Cases
Article 239 Cases
Article 245 Cases
Article 2585 Cases
Article 2620 Cases
Article 278 Cases
Article 283 Cases
Article 2923 Cases
Article 3017 Cases
Article 3155 Cases
Article 322 Cases
Article 3325 Cases
Article 344 Cases
Article 35132 Cases
Article 3627 Cases
Article 370 Cases
Article 3884 Cases
Article 39227 Cases
Article 4030 Cases
Article 412 Cases
Article 426 Cases
Article 432 Cases
Article 448 Cases
Article 4539 Cases
Article 4613 Cases
Article 4724 Cases
Article 489 Cases
Article 49105 Cases
Article 5040 Cases
Article 5115 Cases
Article 525 Cases
Article 5371 Cases
Article 549 Cases
Article 558 Cases
Article 560 Cases
Article 5770 Cases
Article 5820 Cases
Article 5923 Cases
Article 607 Cases
Article 6122 Cases
Article 6224 Cases
Article 6312 Cases
Article 6425 Cases
Article 651 Cases
Article 664 Cases
Article 6716 Cases
Article 680 Cases
Article 696 Cases
Article 701 Cases
Article 7129 Cases
Article 729 Cases
Article 7316 Cases
Article 74147 Cases
Article 7542 Cases
Article 7616 Cases
Article 7743 Cases
Article 78217 Cases
Article 7935 Cases
Article 8014 Cases
Article 8134 Cases
Article 8211 Cases
Article 831 Cases
Article 8427 Cases
Article 855 Cases
Article 865 Cases
Article 873 Cases
Article 8810 Cases
Article 890 Cases
Article 901 Cases
Article 910 Cases
Article 9210 Cases
Article 934 Cases
Article 940 Cases
Article 954 Cases
Article 966 Cases
Article 970 Cases
Article 980 Cases
Article 992 Cases
Article 10022 Cases
Article 1010 Cases
Total Cases in the database 3488