Subject
Subject Article
 
ABUSE OF RIGHTS
    See: Good faith and fair dealing
 
ACCEPTANCE
  effective upon receipt
2.1.6
    Acceptance
  indication of assent
2.1.6
    by performance
2.1.6
    silence insufficient
2.1.6
  varying terms of offer
2.1.11
    non-material alterations
2.1.11
  time of
2.1.7
    fixed period
2.1.8
    late acceptance
2.1.9
  withdrawal of acceptance
2.1.11
 
ADAPTATION
  gross disparity
3.2.7
    resort to court
3.2.7
  hardship
6.2.2 | 6.2.3
  resort to court
6.2.3
 
ADDITIONAL PERIOD FOR PERFORMANCE
  grant of
7.1.5
  termination after
7.1.5 | 7.3.1
 
AGENCY
    See: Authority of agent
 
AGREED PAYMENT FOR NON-PERFORMANCE
  defined
7.4.13
  liquidated damages
7.4.13
  penalty clauses
7.4.13
  defined
7.3.3
  validity of
7.4.13
    grossly excessive
 
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION
  suspension of limitation period by
10.7
 
ANTICIPATORY NON-PERFORMANCE
  remedy in case of
7.3.3
 
APPLICATION OF UNIDROIT PRINCIPLES
  as model for legislators
Preamble
  as rules of law governing the contract
Preamble
    express choice by the parties
Preamble
      together with arbitration clause
Preamble
    as "general principles of law"
Preamble
    as "lex mercatoria"
Preamble
    direct application
Preamble
  as substitute for domestic law
Preamble
  to interpret international conventions
Preamble
  to interpret domestic law
Preamble
 
ARBITRATION
  and UNIDROIT Principles
Preamble
 
ASSIGNMENT OF CONTRACTS
  consent of the other party
9.3.3
  given in advance
9.3.4
  defined
9.3.1
  discharge of the assignor
9.3.5
 
ASSIGNMENT OF RIGHTS
  assignor's undertakings
9.1.15
  defined
9.1.1
  future rights
9.1.5
  non-monetary rights
9.1.3
  obligor's rights
9.1.8 | 9.1.13 | 9.1.12
  partial
9.1.4
  successive
9.1.11
  without individual specification
9.1.6
 
AUTHORITY OF AGENT
  agent acting without or exceeding its authority
2.2.5
  apparent authority
2.2.5
  conflict of interest
2.2.7
  definition of
2.2.1
  disclosed agency
2.2.3
  establishment of
2.2.2
  liability for damages
2.2.6
  ratification
2.2.9
  sub-agency
2.2.8
  termination of
2.2.10
  undisclosed agency
2.2.4
 
AVOIDANCE
  damages
3.2.16
  grounds for avoidance
3.2.7 | 3.2.1 | 3.2.2 | 3.2.3 | 3.2.4 | 3.2.5 | 3.2.6
  notice of
3.2.11
    effective upon receipt
3.2.11
  retroactive effect
3.2.14
 
BATTLE OF FORMS
    See: Standard terms
 
BREACH OF CONTRACT
    See: Non-performance
 
CAUSE
  no need for
3.1.2
 
COMPUTATION OF TIME SET BY PARTIES
  notion of
1.12
 
CONCLUSION OF CONTRACT
    See: Formation of contract
 
CONFLICT OF LAWS RULES
    See: Private international law rules
 
CONSIDERATION
  no need for
3.1.2
 
CONTRACT
  binding character of
1.3
  freedom of
1.1
 
CONTRACT IN FAVOUR OF THIRD PARTY
    See: Third party rights
 
COURSE OF DEALING
    See: Practices
 
COURT
  defined
1.11
    includes arbitral tribunals
1.11
 
CULPA IN CONTRAHENDO
    See: Negotiations
 
CURE BY NON-PERFORMING PARTY
  appropriateness
7.1.4
  notice of cure
7.1.4
  termination, relationship with
7.1.4
 
DAMAGES
  avoidance and
3.2.16
  causality
7.4.3
  combined with other remedies
7.1.1 | 7.4.1
  for agent acting without or exceeding its authority
2.2.6
  for breach of confidentiality
2.1.16
  for future benefits lost
7.4.2
    lost chances
7.4.2
    lost profits
7.4.2
  for losses suffered
7.4.2
    non-pecuniary harm
7.4.2
  mitigation, duty of
5.1.3 | 7.4.5 | 7.4.8
  payment of
7.4.11
    currency in which to assess
7.4.12
    indexation
7.4.11
  pre-contractual liability
2.1.15
    reliance not expectation
2.1.15
  reduction of
7.4.2
    for contribution to harm
7.4.7
    for harm due to failure to mitigate
7.4.7
  right to
7.4.1
    full compensation
7.4.2
    harm must be certain
7.4.3
    harm must be forseeable
7.4.4
    result from non-performance
7.4.1 | 7.4.3
 
DELAY
    See: Performance
 
DISPATCH PRINCIPLE
    See: Notice
 
DOMESTIC LAW
  issues governed by
1.2 | 1.3 | 1.6 | 2.1.16 | 2.2.10 | 9.3.2 | 10.5 | 2.2.7 | 3.1.1 | 9.2.2 | 10.1 | 7.4.10 | 7.4.11 | 2.2.9 | 9.1.2 | 2.2.1 | 3.2.14 | 6.1.9 | 6.1.14 | 7.2.4 | 7.3.6
 
DUTY TO ACHIEVE SPECIFIC RESULT
    See: Obligations
 
DUTY OF CONFIDENTIALITY
    See: Damages
 
DUTY OF CO-OPERATION
  cure by non-performing party and
7.1.4
 
DUTY TO USE BEST EFFORTS
    See: Obligations
 
ELECTRONIC CONTRACTING
  automated contracting
2.1.1
  no requirement as to form
1.2
  e-mail and time of dispatch of message
2.1.8
  e-mail and delay in transmission of message
2.1.9
  modification in a particular form and
2.1.18
 
ESTOPPEL
    See: Inconsistent behaviour
 
EXEMPTION CLAUSES
  defined
7.1.6
  validity of
7.1.6
    grossly unfair
7.1.6
 
FAIR DEALING
    See: Good faith and fair dealing
 
FORCE MAJEURE
  defined
7.1.7
  effects of
7.1.7
    temporary impediment
7.1.7
  hardship distinguished
6.2.2 | 7.1.7
 
FORMAL REQUIREMENTS
  freedom from
1.2
  modification in a particular form
2.1.18
  merger clause
2.1.17
  stipulated by parties
2.1.13
 
FORMATION OF CONTRACT
  automated contracting
2.1.1
  manner of
2.1.1
    by acceptance of an offer
2.1.1
    by conduct sufficient to show agreement
2.1.1
  conclusion of contract dependent on
2.1.13
    agreement on specific matters
2.1.13
    agreement in a particular form
2.1.13
  terms deliberately left open
2.1.14
 
FRAUD
  adaptation on ground of
3.2.10
  avoidance on ground of
3.2.5
  defined
3.2.5
  imputable to third person
3.2.8
 
GOOD FAITH AND FAIR DEALING
  criterion for supplying of omitted terms
4.8
    of omitted price term
5.1.7
  duty of cooperation and
5.1.3 | 6.2.3 | 6.1.6 | 7.1.2
  implied obligation
5.1.1 | 6.2.3 | 5.1.2
  general principle underlying UNIDROIT Principles
1.7
    mandatory nature of
1.5
 
GROSS DISPARITY
  adaptation on ground of
3.2.7
  avoidance on ground of
3.2.7
 
HARDSHIP
  defined
6.2.2
  effects of
6.2.3
  exceptional character of
6.2.1
  renegotiations
6.2.3
    measures court may take if negotiations fail
6.2.3
 
IMPOSSIBILITY
    See: Initial impossibility | Public permission requirements
 
IMPUTATION
  imputation of payments
6.1.12
  imputation of non-monetary obligations
6.1.13
 
INCONSISTENT BEHAVIOUR
  prohibition of
1.8
 
INITIAL IMPOSSIBILITY
  lack of legal title to dispose
3.1.3
  performance impossible from outset
3.1.3 | 3.2.2
 
INTEGRATION CLAUSE
    See: Merger clause
 
INTEREST
  accrues from time payment due
7.4.9
  additional damages recoverable
7.4.9
  rate of interest
7.4.9
  on damages
7.4.10
 
INTERFERENCE BY OTHER PARTY
  excuse for own non-performance
7.1.1
  performance impossible due to
7.1.2
 
INTERPRETATION OF CONTRACT
  circumstances relevant to
4.3
  determination of kind of obligation involved
5.1.5
  multiple language versions
4.7
  rules governing
4.1
    all terms to be given effect
4.5
    common intention to prevail
4.1
    contra proferentem rule
4.6
    reference to contract as a whole
4.4
  rules governing
4.3
 
INTERPRETATION OF STATEMENTS AND OTHER CONDUCT
  circumstances relevant
4.3
  rules for interpretation of contract apply by analogy
4.2
 
INTERPRETATION OF UNIDROIT PRINCIPLES
    See: UNIDROIT Principles
 
JUDICIAL PENALTIES
    See: Right to performance
 
LEX MERCATORIA
    See: Application of UNIDROIT Principles
 
LIMITATION PERIODS
  definition of
1.10
  expiration of
10.9
  general period of
10.2
  modification by parties
10.3 | 10.4 | 10.2
  renewal of
10.4
  restitution
10.11
  suspension of
10.6 | 10.8 | 10.5 | 10.7
 
LIQUIDATED DAMAGES
    See: Agreed payment for non-performance
 
MANDATORY RULES
  mandatory rules prevail
1.4
    mandatory rules if Principles incorporated in contract
1.4
    mandatory rules if Principles law governing contract
1.4
  mandatory rules to be found in the Principles
1.5
    examples
1.7 | 3.1.4 | 5.1.7 | 7.4.13 | 7.1.6
 
MERGER CLAUSE
  defined
2.1.17
  standard terms containing
2.1.21
 
MISTAKE
  avoidance due to
3.2.2
  defined
3.2.1
  fraud distinguished
3.2.5 | 3.2.10
  in expression or transmission
1.10 | 3.2.3
  loss of right to avoid
3.2.10
 
MODIFICATION IN A PARTICULAR FORM
  clause requiring
2.1.18
  standard terms containing
2.1.21
 
MODIFICATION OF CONTRACT
  by agreement of parties
1.3
    no need for consideration
3.1.2
    no need for cause
3.1.2
    no requirement as to form
1.2
 
NEGOTIATIONS
  breaking off
2.1.15
  conclusion of contract dependent on agreement on specific terms
2.1.13
  conclusion of contract dependent on agreement in a specific form
2.1.13
  duty of confidentiality and
2.1.16
  freedom of
2.1.15
  good faith and fair dealing in
1.7 | 2.1.15 | 6.1.14
  interference in by third parties
3.2.8
  interpretation of contract and
4.3
    merger clause
2.1.17 | 4.8
  standard terms and
2.1.19 | 2.1.20
  terms deliberately left open
2.1.14
 
NO ORAL MODIFICATION CLAUSE
    See: Modification in a particular form
 
NON-PERFORMANCE
  anticipatory
1.10 | 7.3.3
  defined
7.1.1
  excuses for
7.1.1
    exemption clauses
7.1.6
    force majeure
7.1.7
    interference by other party
7.1.2
    withholding performance
7.1.3
  excuses for
7.4.1
  fundamental
7.1.5 | 7.1.7 | 7.3.1
  of obligation of best efforts
5.1.4
    failure to achieve a specific result distinguished
5.1.4
 
NOTICE
  defined
1.10
  effective upon receipt
1.10
  interpretation of
4.2
  no requirement as to form
1.10
 
OBLIGATIONS
  determing which applies
5.1.5
  best efforts or specific result
5.1.4
  duty to mitigate damages
7.4.5 | 7.4.8
  duty of co-operation
5.1.3
  implied
5.1.1
  quality of performance due
5.1.6
 
OFFER
  defined
2.1.2
  effective upon receipt
2.1.3
  irrevocable
2.1.4
  rejection of
2.1.5
  revocation of
2.1.4
  withdrawal of
2.1.3
 
PACTA SUNT SERVANDA
    See: Contract
 
PARTY AUTONOMY
    See: Contract
 
PAYMENT
  currency of account
6.1.9
  exchange rate applicable
6.1.9
  form of
6.1.7
    cheque or other instrument
6.1.7
    transfer of funds
6.1.8
  mandatory rules pertaining to
6.1.9 | 6.1.14
  on delivery
6.1.4
  place for
6.1.6 | 6.1.7 | 6.1.8 | 6.1.9 | 6.1.10 | 1.6
 
PENALTY CLAUSE
    See: Agreed payment for non-performance
 
PERFORMANCE
  costs of
6.1.11
  earlier
6.1.5
  late performance
7.1.5
    damages
7.4.1
  order of
6.1.4
  overdue
7.3.2
  partial
6.1.3
  place for
6.1.6
    change in place of
6.1.6
    of monetary obligation
6.1.6
      funds transfer
6.1.8
    of non-moetary obligations
6.1.6
  quality of performance due
5.1.6
  time of
6.1.1
  withholding of
7.1.3
 
PRACTICES
  binding character
1.9
  fraudulent
3.2.5
  modes of acceptance and
2.1.6
  source of implied obligations
5.1.2
 
PRE-CONTRACTUAL LIABILITY
    See: Damages | Negotiations
 
PRICE
  due to nature of obligation incurred
5.1.5
  determination
5.1.7
    by one party
5.1.7
     by third person
5.1.7
    reasonable price
5.1.7
    not determined in offer
2.1.11
  indexation
5.1.7
  renegotiation of
6.2.3
 
PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW RULES
  law governing contract and
Preamble
  applicable mandatory rules determined on basis of
1.4
  relevant public permission requirements determined on the basis of
6.1.14
 
PUBLIC PERMISSION REQUIREMENTS
  application for
6.1.14
    cost of
6.1.15
    duty of best efforts
6.1.14
    notice of outcome
6.1.15
    party required to file
1.11 | 6.1.14
  defined
6.1.14
  determination of relevant permission requirements
6.1.14
  duty to inform of existence of
6.1.14
  permission neither granted nor refused
6.1.16
  permission refused
6.1.17
    affecting validity of contract
6.1.14 | 6.1.17 | 7.2.2
    rendering performance impossible
6.1.14 | 6.1.17 | 7.2.2
 
REASONABLE EXPECTATION OF NON-PERFORMANCE
  remedies in case of
7.3.4
 
RELEASE BY AGREEMENT
 
REMEDIES
  change of
7.2.5
  cumulation of
7.1.1
  for breach of confidentiality
2.1.16
  for early performance
6.1.5
  for failure to obtain public permission
6.1.16
  for non-performance
3.2.1 | 3.2.4
  for partial performance
6.1.3
  in case of impossibility
7.2.2
  in case of notice to cure
7.1.4
  withholding performance
7.1.3 | 7.1.4 | 7.1.5
 
RENUNCIATION OF RIGHTS
  See: Release by agreement
 
REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT
  form of
7.1.4
  of defective performance
7.2.3
 
REPLACEMENT TRANSACTION
  availability of, precluding specific performance
7.2.2
  damages based on
7.4.5
  required by duty to mitigate
7.4.5 | 7.4.8
 
RESTITUTION
  inconsistent with right to cure
7.1.4
  on avoidance
3.2.14
  on termination
7.3.6
 
RIGHT TO PERFORMANCE
  defective performance
7.2.3
  non-performance of monetary obligation
7.2.1
  non-performance of non-monetary obligation
7.2.3
    damages,may be combined with
7.4.1
    exceptions to right to performance
7.2.2
    remedy non discretionary
7.2.2
    right to change of remedy
7.2.5
 
SCOPE OF UNIDROIT PRINCIPLES
    See: UNIDROIT Principles
 
SET-OFF
  by notice
8.4 | 8.3
  conditions of
8.1
  effects of
8.5
  foreign currency
8.2
 
SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE
    See: Right to performance
 
STANDARD TERMS
  battle of forms
2.1.22
  defined
2.1.19
  interpretation of
4.1 | 4.6
  surprising terms in
2.1.20
  when binding
2.1.19 | 2.1.20
 
SUPPLEMENTATION OF UNIDROIT PRINCIPLES
    See: UNIDROIT Principles
 
SUPPLYING OMITTED TERMS
    See: Terms of contract
 
TERMINATION
  anticipatory non-performance and
7.3.3
  by agreement between parties
3.1.2
  by unilateral notice
7.3.1
    after demand of assurances
7.3.4
    after Nachfrist
7.1.5 | 7.3.1
    based on non-performance
7.1.1
      even if non-performance excused
7.1.1
      non-performance must be fundamental
7.1.5 | 7.1.7 | 7.3.1 | 7.3.3
    based on non-performance
7.3.1
    contract for indefinite period
5.1.8
  effects of
7.3.5
    does not affect claim for damages
7.1.1 | 7.3.5 | 7.4.1
    effects on third parties not covered
1.3
    contract terms unaffected
7.3.5
  force majeure and
6.2.2 | 7.1.7
  hardship and
6.2.3
  inconsistent with notice of cure
7.1.4
 
TERMS OF CONTRACT
  avoidance of individual terms
3.2.12 | 3.2.7 | 3.2.13
  deliberately left open
2.1.14
  implied obligations
5.1.1
    sources of
5.1.2
  insistence on specific terms
2.1.13
  supplying of omitted terms
4.8
 
THIRD PARTY RIGHTS
  conferred by express or implied agreement
5.2.1
  defences
5.2.4
  exclusion or limitation of beneficiary's liability
5.2.3
  identificability of the beneficiary
5.2.2
  renunciation
5.2.6
  revocation
5.2.5
 
THIRD PERSONS
  effect of contract on, not covered by UNIDROIT Principles
1.3
  interference of in negotiations
3.2.8
  rights of third persons in case of termination not covered
7.3.6
 
THREAT
  adaptation of contract on ground of
3.2.10
  avoidance of contract on ground of
3.2.6
  imputable to third persons
3.2.8
 
TRANSFER OF OBLIGATIONS
  by agreement
9.2.1
  consent of obligee required
9.2.3
  discharge of original obligor
9.2.5
  given in advance
9.2.4
  new obligor's rights
9.2.7
  rights related
9.2.8
  third party performance
9.2.6
 
UNEQUAL BARGAINING POWER
    See: Gross disparity
 
UNIDROIT PRINCIPLES
  exclusion and modification of
1.5
    mandatory rules of
1.7 | 7.1.6 | 3.1.4 | 7.4.13 | 1.1
  general principles underlying
1.6
    absence of specific requirements as to form
1.10 | 1.2
    freedom of contract
1.5 | 1.1
    full compensation
7.4.2
    good faith and fair dealing
1.7
    pacta sunt servanda
1.3
    reasonableness
4.1 | 4.3 | 5.1.2 | 5.1.7 | 4.2 | 4.8 | 5.1.6
  interpretation of
1.6
  and mandatory rules of national, supranational and international origin
1.4
  matters not covered by
1.6
    consumer transactions
Preamble
    immorality or illegality
3.1.1
    lack of authority
3.1.1
    lack of capacity
3.1.1
  scope of
Preamble
    commercial contracts
Preamble
    international contracts
Preamble
  supplementation of
1.6
 
UNILATERAL DECLARATIONS
  invalidity of
3.2.17
 
USAGES
  binding character of
1.9
  circumstance relevant to interpretation
4.3
    mistake
3.2.2
  means of overcoming indefiniteness
2.1.2
  modes of acceptance and
2.1.6
  order of performance determined by
6.1.4
  requiring replacement transaction
7.4.5 | 7.2.1
  source of implied obligation
5.1.2
  standard terms and
2.1.19
  UNIDROIT Principles superseded by
1.9
 
VALIDITY OF CONTRACT
  grounds of invalidity not covered
3.1.1
  provisions concerning validity of mandatory character
3.1.4 | 1.5
  public permission requirements affecting
6.1.16 | 7.2.2 | 6.1.14 | 6.1.17
 
VENIRE CONTRA FACTUM PROPRIUM
  See: Inconsistent behaviour
 
WRITING
  defined
1.11
  electronic communications and
1.11
 
WRITINGS IN CONFIRMATION
  defined
2.1.12
  varying terms of contract contained in
2.1.12
 
ILLEGALITY
 
CONDITION
 
LONG-TERM CONTRACTS