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 Article #  

  (1) For the purposes of this Convention statements made by and other conduct of a party are to be interpreted according to his intent where the other party knew or could not have been unaware what that intent was.

(2) If the preceding paragraph is not applicable, statements made by and other conduct of a party are to be interpreted according to the understanding that a reasonable person of the same kind as the other party would have had in the same circumstances.

(3) In determining the intent of a party or the understanding a reasonable person would have had, due consideration is to be given to all relevant circumstances of the case including the negotiations, any practices which the parties have established between themselves, usages and any subsequent conduct of the parties.


Author Title Publisher
BAINBRIDGE, S. Trade Usages in International Sales of Goods: An Analysis of the 1964 and 1980 Sales Convention 24 VIRGINIA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 619-665 (1983-84)
BAUMANN, A. Regeln der Auslegung internationaler Handelsgeschäfte : eine vergleichende Untersuchung der UNIDROIT Principles, der Principles of European Contract Law, des Uniform Commercial Code und des deutschen Rechts Göttingen : V & R Unipress, 2004
BERAUDO, J.P. Convention de Vienne du 11 avril 1980 sur la vente internationale de marchandises: l'interpretation du contrat DERECHO COMPARADO. RIVISTA DE LA ASOCIACION ARGENTINA DE DERECHO COMPARADO, 1993, 33-43
BERLINGIERI, F. Lo standard del 'reasonable man' AA.VV., LA VENDITA INTERNAZIONALE, ATTI CONVEGNO S. MARGHERITA LIGURE (26-28 SETT. 1980), QUADERNI GIUR. COMM. 39, (MILANO, GIUFFRE) 1981, 327-340
BYDLINSKI, F. Das allgemeine Vertragsrecht (Symposium Bade-Wien 17/19.4.1983) DORALT, P.(ed.), DAS UNCITRAL-KAUFRECHT IM VERGLEICH ZUM ÖSTERREICHISCHEN RECHT (WIEN, MANZ) 1985, 57-90
DI MATTEO, L. A. The CISG and the presumption of enforceability: unintended contractual liability in international business dealings The Yale Journal of International Law, Winter 1997, 111-170
DI MATTEO, L. A., An international contract law formula: the informality of international business transactions plus the internationalization of contract law equals unexpected contractual liability Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce, Spring 1997, 67-111
EÖRSI, G., General Provisions GALSTON, N.M. / SMIT, H. (eds.) INTERNATIONAL SALES (CONFERENCE AT PARKER SCHOOL) (NEW YORK, MATTHEW BENDER), 1984, ch. 2
FARNSWORTH E.A. Art. 8 CISG in: BIANCA C.M. / BONELL M.J. (eds.), Commentary on the International Sales Law, Giuffrè, Milano 1987, 95-102
FERRANTE, E. "Battle of forms" and the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). A note on the BGH (German Supreme Court) decision of 9 January 2002 in: Uniform Law Review / Revue de droit uniforme, 8 (2003), 975 - 981
FERRARI, F. Auslegung von Parteierklärungen und –verhalten nach UN-Kaufrecht Internationales Handelsrecht, 3 (2003), 1-10.
FERRARI, F. Interpretation of statements and conduct under the Convention for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) in the light of case law Revue de droit des affaires internationales / International Business Law Review, no. 1 (2003), 96-107.
FERRARI, F. Interpretation of statements: article 8 in: : FERRARI, F. - FLECHTNER, H. - BRAND, R.A. (Eds.) - The draft UNICITRAL digest and beyond. Cases, analysis and unresolved issues in the U.N. Sales Convention, München, Sellier, London, Sweet and Maxwell, 2003, 172-190.
FERRARI, F., Vendita internazionale di beni mobili. Tomo I - Art. 1-13 (Commentario del Codice Civile Scialoja-Branca, Supplemento) (Bologna, Zanichelli), 1994
FERRERI S., Remarks concerning the implementation of the CISG by the courts (the seller's performance and article 35) in: The Journal of Law and Commerce, Vol. 25, Issue 1, 2005, pp. 223-239
FLECHTNER, H.-M., The U.N. Sales Convention (CISG) and MCC-Marble Ceramic Center, Inc. v. Ceramica Nuova D'Agostino, S.p.a.: The Elevent Circuit Weighs in on Interpretation, Subjective Intent, Procedural Limits to the Convention's Scope, and the Parol Evidence Rule Journal of Law and Commerce, 1999, 259-287
FLECHTNER, H.M., More US Decisions on the UN Sales Convention: Scope, Parol Evidence, 'Validity' and Reduction of Price Under Article 50 14 JOURNAL OF LAW AND COMMERCE 153-176 (1995)
HOFFMANN VON, B., Passing of Risk in International Sales of Goods SARCEVIC, P. / VOLKEN, P. (eds.), INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS, DUBROVNIK LECTURES (NEW YORK, OCEANA), 1986, 265-303
HUBER P., Some introductory remarks on the CISG in: Internationales Handelsrecht, 6/2006, pp. 228-238
JUNGE W. Artt. 8-9 CISG in: CAEMMERER VON E. / SCHLECHTRIEM P., Kommentar zum Einheitlichen UN-Kaufrecht - CISG, München 1990, 95-105
JUNGE W. Arts. 8-9 CISG in: Schlechtriem P. (ed.), Commentary on the UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG), Oxford 1998, 69-80
KACZOROWSKA, A., Règles uniformes d'interprétation d'un contrat international REVUE DE DROIT INTERNATIONAL ET DE DROIT COMPARE (INSTITUT BELGE DE DROIT COMPARE), 1991, 294-313
KENJI NAKATA, G., Filanto S.p.A. v. Chilewich Int'l Corp.: Sounds of Silence Bellow Forth Under the CISG's International Battle of the Forms 7 THE TRANSNATIONAL LAWYER 141-163 (1994)
KLEIN, J. / BACHECHI, C., Precontractual Liability and the Duty of Good Faith Negotiations in International Transactions 17 HOUSTON JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 1-23 (1994)
LIGUORI, F., Il diritto uniforme della vendita internazionale: prassi e tendenze applicative della Convenzione di Vienna del 1980 RIVISTA DI DIRITTO CIVILE (1999), 143-177
LOEWE, R., Anwendungsgebiet, Auslegung, Lücken und Handelsgebräuche (Lausanner Kolloquium 19/20.11.1984) WIENER ÜBEREINKOMMEN VON 1980 ÜBER DEN INTERNATIONALEN WARENKAUF, SCHWEIZERISCHES INSTITUTS FÜR RECHTSVERGLEICHUNG (ZÜRICH), 1985, 11-20
LOOKOFSKY, J.M., Loose Ends and Contorts in International Sales: Problems in the Harmonization of Private Law Rules 39 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE LAW 403-416 (1991)
LóPEZ Y LóPEZ, A.M., La interpretación del contrato en la Convención de Viena sobre compraventa internacional de mercaderías REVISTA DE DERECHO MERCANTIL, 225, 1997, 1207-1233
MAGNUS, U. Aktuelle Fragen des UN-Kaufrechts ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR EUROPÄISCHES PRIVATRECHT (ZEuP), 1993, 79-99
MOORE, D.H., The parol evidence rule and the UN CISG: justifying Beijng Metals & Minerals Import/Export Copr. v. American Business center, Inc. [1993 F.2d 1178 (5th Cir. 1993)] BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW 1347 (1995)
OVIEDO ALBAN, J. La costumbre en la compraventa internacional de mercaderias: Comentarios a los artículos 8.3 y 9 de la Convención de Viena de 1980. (Custom on the International Sale of Goods: Commentary to the arts.8.3and 9 of the Vienna Convention of 1980) Revista De Derecho Internacional y del MERCOSUR. Año 7 nº 3 pp. 17 - 41.
PELEGGI, R. Parol evidence rule e ammissibilità della prova extratestuale nei contratti scritti: qualche riflessione in chiave comparatistica Diritto del commercio internazionale, n.4/2012, pp. 1009-1046.
PERILLO, J. M. Editorial Remarks on the Manner in Which the UNIDROIT Principles May Be Used to Interpret or Supplement Article 8 of the CISG in Review of the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (2002-2003), 2004, 189-193
REINHART, G., Zurückbehaltungsrecht und Unsicherheitseinrede nach UN-Kaufrecht im Vergleich zu EKG und BGB SCHLECHTRIEM, P. (ed.), EINHEITLICHES KAUFRECHT UNDNATIONALES OBLIGATIONENRECHT (FACHTAGUNG FREIBURGI.BR. 16/17.2.1987) (BADEN-BADEN), 1987, 361-383
ROSETT, A. Critical Reflections on the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 45 OHIO STATE LAW JOURNAL 265-305 (1984)
SCHLECHTRIEM, P., Vertragsmäßigkeit der Ware als Frage der Beschaffenheitsvereinbarung PRAXIS DES ININTERNATIONALEN PRIVAT- UND VERFAHRENSRECHTS (IPRax) 1996, 12
SCHMIDT-KESSEL M. Arts. 8-9 CISG in: SCHLECHTRIEM P. / SCHWENZER I. (eds.), Commentary on UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG), 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford 2005, 111-153
SCHMIDT-KESSEL M. Artt. 8-9 CISG in: SCHLECHTRIEM P. / SCHWENZER I. (eds.), Kommentar zum Einheitlichen UN-Kaufrecht, 4th ed., C.H. Beck, München 2004, 163-197
STOFFEL, W.A., Formation du contrat (Lausanner Kolloquium 19./20.11.1984) WIENER ÜBEREINKOMMEN VON 1980 ÜBER DEN INTERNATIONALEN WARENKAUF, SCHWEIZERISCHES INSTITUT FÜR RECHTSVERGLEICHUNG (ZÜRICH), 1985, 55-76
THIEFFRY, J., Les nouvelles règles de la vente internationale (Dossier/Symposium: la Convention de Vienne sur la vente internationale) DROIT ET PRATIQUE DU COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL, 1989, 369-384
VAZQUEZ LEPINETTE, T. Análisis critico de las disposiciones generales de la Convención de Viena sobre compraventa internacional de mercaderías REVISTA DE DERECHO MERCANTIL 217 (1995), 1049-1111
VENTSCH, V. - KLUTH, P. Die Einbeziehung von Allgemeinen Geschäftsbedingungen im Rahmen des UN-Kaufrechts IHR. Internationales Handelsrecht, 3 (2003), 61-66
VILLELA, A.M., O direito romano e a unificaçâo das normas jurídicas relativas aos contratos de compra e venda internacionais de mercadorías REVISTA DE INFORMAÇÅO LEGISLATIVA, 1981, 135-160
VOLKEN, P., Champ d'application, intérpretation, lacunes, usages (Lausanner Kolloquium 19/20.11.1984) WIENER ÜBEREINKOMMEN VON 1980 ÜBER DEN INTERNATIONALEN WARENKAUF, SCHWEIZERISCHES INSTITUT FÜR RECHTSVERGLEICHUNG (ZÜRICH), 1985, 21-33