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  A contract of sale need not to be concluded in or evidenced by writing and is not subject to any other requirements as to form. It may be proved by any means, including witnesses.


Author Title Publisher
BYDLINSKI, F. Das allgemeine Vertragsrecht (Symposium Bade-Wien 17/19.4.1983) DORALT, P.(ed.), DAS UNCITRAL-KAUFRECHT IM VERGLEICH ZUM ÖSTERREICHISCHEN RECHT (WIEN, MANZ) 1985, 57-90
BYDLINSKI, F. Der Vertragsschluß nach der Wiener UN-Kaufrechtskonvention in komparativer Betrachtung ARCHIVIUM IURIDICUM CRACOVIENSE (BRESLAU), 1985, XVIII, 143-156
COMOGLIO, L.P., Libertà di forma e libertà di prova nella compravendita internazionale di merci RIVISTA TRIMESTRALE DI DIRITTO E PROCEDURA CIVILE, 1990, 785-810
COOK, V.S., CISG: Form the Perspective of the Practitioner (Symposium-Ten Years of the United Nations Sales Convention) 17 Jounal of Law and Commerce (1998), 343-353
DEL DUCA L.F., Implementation of contract formation statute of frauds, parol evidence, and battle of forms CISG previsions in civil and common law countries in: The Journal of Law and Commerce, Vol. 25, Issue 1, 2005, pp. 133-146
DI MATTEO, L. A. The CISG and the presumption of enforceability: unintended contractual liability in international business dealings The Yale Journal of International Law, Winter 1997, 111-170
DI MATTEO, L. A., An international contract law formula: the informality of international business transactions plus the internationalization of contract law equals unexpected contractual liability Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce, Spring 1997, 67-111
EÖRSI, G., General Provisions GALSTON, N.M. / SMIT, H. (eds.) INTERNATIONAL SALES (CONFERENCE AT PARKER SCHOOL) (NEW YORK, MATTHEW BENDER), 1984, ch. 2
FERRARI F. Writing requirements: article 11-13 in: FERRARI F. / FLECHTNER H. / BRAND R.A. (eds.), The Draft UNICITRAL Digest and Beyond. Cases, Analysis and Unresolved Issues in the U.N. Sales Convention, München, Sellier; London, Sweet and Maxwell, 2003, 206-215
FERRARI, F. Form und UN-Kaufrecht in: IHR. Internationales Handelsrecht, 1 (2004), 1- 7
FERRARI, F., Vendita internazionale di beni mobili. Tomo I - Art. 1-13 (Commentario del Codice Civile Scialoja-Branca, Supplemento) (Bologna, Zanichelli), 1994
FLECHTNER, H.M., Another CISG Case in the U.S. Courts: Pitfalls for the Practitioner and the Potential for Regionalized Interpretations 15 JOURNAL OF LAW AND COMMERCE 127-138 (1995)
FRIGO, M., L'efficacia delle condizioni generali di contratto alla luce delle Convenzioni di Roma e di Vienna del 1980 DIRITTO DEL COMMERCIO INTERNAZIONALE, 1993, 521-537
GIOVANNUCCI ORLANDI, C., Procedural law issues and uniform law Conventions Uniform Law Review, 2000, 23-41
GLITZ F., The CISG and the Contractual Freedom of Form and Evidence: A Latin-American Perspective in SCHWENZER I./PEREIRA C./TRIPODI L., CISG and Latin America: Regional and Global Perspective, Eleven International Publishing, The Hague, 2016, 183 ff.
JAMETTI GREINER, M., Der Vertragsabschluß - Zeitpunkt, Formvorschriften, rechtsgeschäftliche Erklärungen HOYER, H. / POSCH, W. (eds.), DAS EINHEITLICHE WIENER KAUFRECHT (WIEN), 1992, 43-57
LEVY, D.A., Contract Formation Under the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts, UCC, Restatement and CISG 30 UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE LAW JOURNAL, 3, 249-300 (1998)
MEHREN VON, A.T. / RIVKIN, D.W., Contracts for the International Sale of Minerals 2 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION 49-67 (1985)
MOORE, D.H., The parol evidence rule and the UN CISG: justifying Beijng Metals & Minerals Import/Export Copr. v. American Business center, Inc. [1993 F.2d 1178 (5th Cir. 1993)] BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW 1347 (1995)
MOULY, C., La formation du contrat (Colloque Paris 1/2.12.1989) DERAIN Y. / GHESTIN, J. (eds.), LA CONVENTION DE VIENNE SUR LA VENTE INTERNATIONALE ET LES INCOTERMS, (PARIS) 1990, 55-82
MOULY, C., La conclusion du contrat selon la Convention de Vienne sur la vente internationale de marchandises (Dossier/Symposium: La Convention de Vienne sur la vente internationale) DROIT ET PRATIQUE DU COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL, 1989, 400-421
MURRAY, J.E. jr., An Essay on the Formation of Contracts and Related Matters under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (Symposium Pittsburgh 23.10.1987) 8 JOURNAL OF LAW AND COMMERCE 11-51 (1988)
NICOLL, C., E.D.I. Evidence and the Vienna Convention THE JOURNAL OF BUSINESS LAW 21-35 (1995)
RAJSKI J. Arts. 10-13 CISG in: BIANCA C.M. / BONELL M.J. (eds.), Commentary on the International Sales Law, Giuffrè, Milano 1987, 116-131
RANKER, C., UN-Kaufrecht: Identität des Vertragspartners und Beweiskraft privatschriftlicher Urkunden PRAXIS DES INTERNATIONALEN PRIVAT- UND VERFAHRENSRECHTS (IPRax), 1995, 236-238
REHBINDER, E., Vertragsschluß nach UN-Kaufrecht im Vergleich zu EAG und BGB SCHLECHTRIEM, P. (ed.), EINHEITLICHES KAUFRECHT UNDNATIONALES OBLIGATIONENRECHT (FACHTAGUNG FREIBURGI.BR. 16/17.2.1987) (BADEN-BADEN), 1987, 149-170
REIMERS-ZOCHERS, B., Beweislastfragen im Haager und Wiener Kaufrecht, Frankfurt am Main, 1995
SCHLECHTRIEM P. Arts. 10-13 CISG in: SCHLECHTRIEM P. / SCHWENZER I. (eds.), Commentary on UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG), 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford 2005, 154-175
SCHLECHTRIEM P. Artt. 11-13 CISG in: SCHLECHTRIEM P. / SCHWENZER I. (eds.), Kommentar zum Einheitlichen UN-Kaufrecht, 4th ed., C.H. Beck, München 2004, 202-216
SHISHKEVISH, H.L., The Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods and the General Conditions for the Sale of Goods (Student Note) 12 GEORGIA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW 451-458 (1982)
SONO, K., Formation of International Contracts under the Vienna Convention: A Shift Above the Comparative Law SARCEVIC, P. / VOLKEN, P. (eds.), INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS, DUBROVNIK LECTURES (NEW YORK - OCEANA), 1986, 111-131
STOFFEL, W.A., Formation du contrat (Lausanner Kolloquium 19./20.11.1984) WIENER ÜBEREINKOMMEN VON 1980 ÜBER DEN INTERNATIONALEN WARENKAUF, SCHWEIZERISCHES INSTITUT FÜR RECHTSVERGLEICHUNG (ZÜRICH), 1985, 55-76
VIDA, A., Unwirksamkeit der Offerte wegen Unbestimmtheit nach UN-Kaufrecht PRAXIS DES INTERNATIONALEN PRIVAT- UND VERFAHRENSRECHTS (IPRax), 1995, 261-264
Villalta Puig, G. and C. Wong. Chinese Approaches to the Freedom of Form under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods. Vindobona journal of international commercial law and arbitration (Vienna), pp. 95-112,
VILLELA, A.M., O direito romano e a unificaçâo das normas jurídicas relativas aos contratos de compra e venda internacionais de mercadorías REVISTA DE INFORMAÇÅO LEGISLATIVA, 1981, 135-160
WALKER J., Agreeing to disagree: can we just have words? CISG Article 11 and the model law writing requirement in: The Journal of Law and Commerce, Vol. 25, Issue 1, 2005, pp. 153-165
WALTHER L. / MORAWIETZ M., Declaration according to Article 96 CISG - Senseless? in Internationals Handelsrecht 6/2006, pp. 252 - 254
WANG, X. / BAASCH-ANDERSEN, C. The Chinese declaration as to form of contracts under CISG - time to withdraw in: Uniform Law Review / Revue de droit uniforme, 8 (2003), 870 - 873
WINSHIP, P., Formation of International Sales Contracts under the 1980 Vienna Convention 17 THE INTERNATIONAL LAWYER 1-18 (1983)
YANG, F. PRC’s Two Reservations and the Application of the CISG in CIETAC Arbitration. International Law Review of Wuhan University (Wuhan, China) 8, 2008, pp. 307-329.
YONGPING, X., WEIDI, L. Selected Topics on the Application of the CISG in China. Pace International Law Review (White Plains, N.Y.), Spring 2008, pp. 61-92.
ZELLER, B. The parol evidence rule and the CISG - a comparative analysis The comparative and international law journal of Southern Africa, 36 (2003), 308-324
ZUPPI, A.L. The Parol Evidente Rule: a Comparative Study of the Common Law, the Civil Law Tradition and the Lex Mercatoria 35 Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law 233 (2006-2007), pp.233-276.