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 Article #  

  (1) For the purposes of this Convention statements made by and other conduct of a party are to be interpreted according to his intent where the other party knew or could not have been unaware what that intent was.

(2) If the preceding paragraph is not applicable, statements made by and other conduct of a party are to be interpreted according to the understanding that a reasonable person of the same kind as the other party would have had in the same circumstances.

(3) In determining the intent of a party or the understanding a reasonable person would have had, due consideration is to be given to all relevant circumstances of the case including the negotiations, any practices which the parties have established between themselves, usages and any subsequent conduct of the parties.


Issues       
# Cases
 1 Interpretation of statements or other conduct of a party
11
  1.1 According to party's own intent where other party knew of such intent
26
  1.2 Otherwise, according to understanding of reasonable person of same kind in same circumstances
Country # Cases  
Arbitral Award 2  
Austria 6  
France 1  
Germany 14  
Date Court
26.09.1990 Landgericht Hamburg
20.11.1992 Oberlandesgericht Karlsruhe
08.02.1995 Oberlandesgericht Hamm
28.02.1996 Landgericht Oldenburg
15.09.1997 Landgericht Heilbronn
25.11.1998 Bundesgerichtshof
27.12.1999 Oberlandesgericht Dresden
30.08.2000 Oberlandesgericht Frankfurt
31.10.2001 Bundesgerichtshof
30.01.2004 Oberlandesgericht Düsseldorf
03.08.2005 Landgericht Neubrandeburg
25.01.2008 Oberlandesgericht Hamburg
24.07.2009 Oberlandesgericht Celle
28.05.2014 Bundesgerichshof
Netherlands 2  
Switzerland 4  
USA 2  
New Zealand 1  
32
 2 Relevant circumstances for purposes of interpretation
16
  2.1 Negotiations
12
  2.2 Practices established between parties
13
  2.3 Subsequent conduct of parties
11
  2.4 Usages
 3 Parol evidence rule
10
 4 Merger clause
5
Total: 88


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