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 Article #  

  (1) A party is not liable for a failure to perform any of his obligations if he proves that the failure was due to an impediment beyond his control and that he could not reasonably be expected to have taken the impediment into account at the time of the conclusion of the contract or to have avoided or overcome it or its consequences.

(2) If the party's failure is due to the failure by a third person whom he has engaged to perform the whole or a part of the contract, that party is exempt from liability only if:

(a) he is exempted under the preceding paragraph; and

(b) the person whom he has so engaged would be so exempt if the provisions of that paragraph were applied to him.

(3) The exemption provided by this article has effect for the period during which the impediment exists.

(4) The party who fails to perform must give notice to the other party of the impediment and its effect on his ability to perform. If the notice is not received by the other party within a reasonable time after the party who fails to perform knew or ought to have known of the impediment, he is liable for damages resulting from such non- receipt.

(5) Nothing in this article prevents either party from exercising any right other than to claim damages under this Convention.

# Cases
 1 Exemption for non-performance
  1.1 Impediment amounting to exemption
Country # Cases  
Arbitral Award 1  
France 2  
Date Court
12.06.2001 Cour d'Appel de Colmar
30.06.2004 Cour de Cassation
Germany 2  
Netherlands 1  
Russian Federation 1  
Spain 2  
USA 2  
Ukraine 1  
   1.1.1 Conduct of breaching party
   1.1.2 Strike
   1.1.3 Non-performance by supplier
   1.1.4 Non-performance by independent contractor
   1.1.5 Act of public authorities
  1.2 Temporary impediments
  1.3 Obligation to notify other party of impediment
 2 Consequence of impediment on remedies other than damages
  2.1 Specific performance
  2.2 Reduction of price
  2.3 Avoidance (termination) of contract
 3 Relation to domestic law
  3.1 Force majeure, höhere Gewalt, etc.
  3.2 Frustration
  3.3 Hardship, gross inequity, imprévision, Wegfall der Geschäftsgrundlage, eccessiva onerosità sopravvenuta, etc.
Total: 35

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