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 Article #  

  (1) The parties are bound by any usage to which they have agreed and any practices which they have established between themselves.

(2) The parties are considered, unless otherwise agreed, to have impliedly made applicable to their contract or its formation a usage of which the parties knew or ought to have known and which in international trade is widely known to, and regularly observed by, parties to contracts of the type involved in the particular trade concerned.

# Cases
 1 Usages and practices
  1.1 Practices established between parties
  1.2 Usages expressly agreed to by parties
  1.3 Applicability of usages not expressly agreed to by parties
   1.3.1 Parties knew or ought to have known of usages
   1.3.2 Usages widely known and regularly observed in international trade
Country # Cases  
Arbitral Award 1  
Argentina 3  
Australia 1  
Austria 3  
Germany 5  
Italy 1  
Netherlands 1  
Russian Federation 1  
Spain 2  
Date Court
01.07.2013 Tribunal Supremo
13.05.2014 Audiencia Provincial, Barcelona
Switzerland 2  
USA 7  
27 Local usages
5 Conclusion of contract by letter of confirmation
6 Incorporation of standard terms
  1.4 Usages to prevail over provisions of Convention
  1.5 Validity of usages
Total: 52

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